Skip to main content

A study of the region of massive star formation L379IRS1 in radio lines of methanol and other molecules


The results of spectral observations of the region of massive star formation L379IRS1 (IRAS18265–1517) are presented. The observations were carried out with the 30-m Pico Veleta radio telescope (Spain) at seven frequencies in the 1-mm, 2-mm, and 3-mm wavelength bands. Lines of 24 molecules were detected, from simple diatomic or triatomic species to complex eight- or nine-atom compounds such as CH3OCHO or CH3OCH3. Rotation diagrams constructed from methanol andmethyl cyanide lines were used to determine the temperature of the quiescent gas in this region, which is about 40–50 K. In addition to this warm gas, there is a hot component that is revealed through high-energy lines of methanol and methyl cyanide, molecular lines arising in hot regions, and the presence of H2O masers and Class II methanol masers at 6.7 GHz, which are also related to hot gas. One of the hot regions is probably a compact hot core, which is located near the southern submillimeter peak and is related to a group of methanol masers at 6.7 GHz. High-excitation lines at other positions may be associated with other hot cores or hot post-shock gas in the lobes of bipolar outflows. The rotation diagrams can be use to determine the column densities and abundances of methanol (10−9) and methyl cyanide (about 10−11) in the quiescent gas. The column densities of A- and E-methanol in L379IRS1 are essentually the same. The column densities of other observedmolecules were calculated assuming that the ratios of the molecular level abundances correspond to a temperature of 40 K. The molecular composition of the quiescent gas is close to that in another region of massive star formation, DR21(OH). The only appreciable difference is that the column density of SO2 in L379IRS1 is at least a factor of 20 lower than the value in DR21(OH). The SO2/CS and SO2/OCS abundance ratios, which can be used as chemical clocks, are lower in L379IRS1 than in DR21(OH), suggesting that L379IRS1 is probably younger than DR21(OH).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    J. Hilton and J. F. Lahulla, Astron. J. 106, 672 (1993).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    M. L. Kelly and G. H. Macdonald, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 282, 401 (1996).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    A. J. Walsh, M. G. Burton, A. R. Hyland, and G. Robinson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 301, 640 (1998).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    M. I. Pashchenko and A. M. le Skeren, Astron. Lett. 20, 69 (1994).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    M. I. Pashchenko and E. E. Lekht, Astron. Rep. 49, 624 (2005).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    J. Hilton, G. J. White, N. H. Cronin, and R. Rainey, Astron. Astrophys. 154, 274 (1986).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    L. Kogan and V. Slysh, Astrophys. J. 497, 800 (1998).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    V. I. Slysh, I. E. Val’tts, S. V. Kalenskii, and V. V. Golubev, Astron. Rep. 73, 785 (1999).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    V. G. Promyslov, G. M. Larionov, and S. V. Kalenskii, Astron. Rep. 47, 276 (2003).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    J. T. Pottage, D. R. Flower, and S. L. Davis, J. Phys. B 35, 254 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    J. T. Pottage, D. R. Flower, and S. L. Davis, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352, 39 (2004).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    S. V. Kalenskii, A. V. Alakoz, and V. G. Promyslov, in Chemistry as a Diagnostic of Star Formation, Ed. by C. L. Curry and M. Fish (NRC, Ottawa, Canada, 2003), Vol. 53, p. 321.

  13. 13.

    S. Leurini, P. Schilke, K. M. Menten, D. R. Flower, J. T. Pottage, and L. H. Xu, Astron. Astrophys. 422, 573 (2004).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    S. V. Kalenskii and S. Kurtz, Astron. Zh. (2016, in press).

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    R. M. Lees, Astrophys. J. 184, 763 (1973).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    P. Friberg, Å. Hjalmarson, S. C. Madden, and W. M. Irvine, Astron. Astrophys. 195, 281 (1988).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    E. S. Wirström, W. D. Geppert, Å. Hjalmarson, C. M. Persson, J. H. Black, P. Bergman, T. J. Millar, M. Hamberg, and E. Vigren, Astron. Astrophys. 533, A24 (2011).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    F. F. S. van der Tak, J. H. Black, F. L. Schöier, D. J. Jansen, and E. F. van Dishoeck, Astron. Astrophys. 468, 627 (2007).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    V. Hernandez-Hernandez, L. Zapata, S. Kurtz, and G. Garay, Astron. Astrophys. 568, 65 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    H. G. Arce, J. Santiago-Garcia, J. K. Jorgensen, M. Tafalla, and R. Bachiller, Astrophys. J. 681, 21 (2008)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    S. N. Milam, C. Savage, M. A. Brewster, L. M. Ziurys, and S. Wyckoff, Astrophys. J. 634, 1126 (2005).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    H. E. Matthews and T. J. Sears, Astrophys. J. 267, 53 (1983).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    S. V. Kalenskii, V. G. Promyslov, A. V. Alakoz, A. Winnberg, and L. E. B. Johansson, Astron. Rep. 44, 725 (2000).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    S. R. Purcell, R. Balasubramanyam, M. G. Burton, A. J. Walsh, V. Minier, M. R. Hunt-Cunningham, L. L. Kedziora-Chudczer, S. N. Longmore, T. Hill, I. Bains, P. J. Barnes, A. L. Busfield, P. Calisse, N. H. M. Crighton, S. J. Curran, et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 367, 553 (2006).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    S. V. Kalenskii and L. E. B. Johansson, Astron. Rep. 54, 1084 (2010).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    A. Bacmann, V. Tarquet, A Faure, C. Kahane, and C. Ceccarelli, Astron. Astrophys. 541, L12 (2012).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    C. Vastel, C. Ceccarelli, B. Lefloch, and R. Bachiller, Astrophys. J. 795, L2 (2014).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    K. I. öberg, S. Bottinelli, J. K. Jorgensen, and E. F. van Dishoeck, Astrophys. J. 716, 825 (2010).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    A. Jaber, C. Ceccarelli, C. Cahane, and E. Caux, Astrophys. J. 791, 29 (2014).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    J. G. Mangum and Y. L. Shirley, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacif. 127, 266 (2015)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    H. Ungerechts, G. Winnewisser, and C. M. Walmsley, Astron. Astrophys. 157, 207 (1986).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    S. V. Kalenskii and L. E. B. Johansson, Astron. Rep. 54, 295 (2010).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    V. Wakelam, P. Caselli, C. Ceccarelli, E. Herbst, and A. Castets, Astron. Astrophys. 422, 159 (2004).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    V. Wakelam, F. Hersant, and F. Herpin, Astron. Astrophys. 529, A112 (2011).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. V. Kalenskii.

Additional information

Original Russian Text © S.V. Kalenskii, M.A. Shchurov, 2016, published in Astronomicheskii Zhurnal, 2016, Vol. 93, No. 4, pp. 409–432.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kalenskii, S.V., Shchurov, M.A. A study of the region of massive star formation L379IRS1 in radio lines of methanol and other molecules. Astron. Rep. 60, 438–460 (2016).

Download citation


  • Astronomy Report
  • Column Density
  • Rotational Temperature
  • Methanol Maser
  • Massive Star Formation