Skip to main content

The Reproduction and Development of Brackish-Water Copepods That Were Fed Microalgae of Different Species


The duration of development, survival rate, and reproductive characteristics of Calanipeda aquaedulcis (Krichagin, 1873) and Arctodiaptomus salinus (Daday, 1885) depending on a diet consisting of monospecific cultures of microalgae from three different taxonomic groups were studied in experimental conditions. The highest survival rates were recorded for the copepod C. aquaedulcis that was fed the microalga Prorocentrum cordatum (Ostenfeld) J.D. Dodge, 1975. A. salinus showed the maximum survival rate when it was fed the microalga Isochrysis galbana Parke, 1949. The duration of ontogeny in C. aquaedulcis was 14 days with each of the three diets. The shortest duration of development in A. salinus (18 days) was recorded when it fed on Rhodomonas salina (Wislouch) Hill and Wetherbee, 1989. The percentage of hatching nauplii in female C. aquaedulcis that were fed P. cordatum and I. galbana was 100%; however, when females were fed Rh. salina, it decreased to 86%. The average daily fecundity per life cycle in female C. aquaedulcis was found to be two times higher than that in A. salinus. The female A. salinus that received different diets showed significant differences in the average prosoma length and the diameter of spawned eggs; in C. aquaedulcis, these parameters did not depend on the species of food.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.


  1. Aganesova, L.O., Development times of the copepods Calanipeda aquaedulcis and Arctodiaptomus salinus at different temperatures, Morsk. Ekol. Zh., 2013, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 19–25.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Garber, B.I., Observations on development and breeding of Calanipeda aquaedulcis Kritsch (Copepoda: Calanoida), Tr. Karadag. Biol. Stn., Akad. Nauk Ukr. SSR, 1951, vol. 2, pp. 3–55.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Gilyarov, A.M., Dinamika chislennosti planktonnykh rakoobraznykh (Dynamics of Plankton Crustacean Abundance), Moscow: Nauka, 1987.

  4. Hubareva, E.S. and Svetlichny, L.S., Salinity tolerance of copepods Calanipeda aquaedulcis and Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda), Morsk. Ekol. Zh., 2011, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 32–39.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Novoselova, N.V. and Turkulova, V.N., On the method of mass cultivation of live feed under low temperature conditions for juveniles of valuable marine fish species, Tr. Yuzhn. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2008, vol. 46, pp. 41–47.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Petipa, T.S. and Ten, V.S., An investigation of algae cultures to study the diet of animals and clarify the relationship between elimination and production processes, in Ekologicheskaya fiziologiya morskikh planktonnykh vodoroslei (v usloviyakh kul’tur) (Ecological Physiology of Marine Planktonic Algae (under Culture Conditions)), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1971, pp. 168–177.

  7. Semik, A.M., Copepod (Diaptomus salinus E. Daday) as a potential object of mass cultivation, in Zhivye korma dlya ob’’ektov marikul’tury (Live Feed for Mariculture Species), Moscow: VNIRO, 1988, pp. 98–102.

  8. Stelmakh, L.V. and Galatonova, O.A., Kollektsiya morskikh planktonnykh vodoroslei FITs InBYuM (Collection of Marine Plankton Algae of Kovalevsky Institute of Marine Biological Research), Sevastopol: Inst. Biol. Yuzhn. Morei im. A.O. Kovalevskogo, 2003.

  9. Tolomeev, A.P., Experimental assessment of growth kinetics and diet spectra of some zooplankton species, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Krasnoyarsk, 2002.

  10. Khanaichenko, A.N., The effect of microalgal diet on copepod reproduction parameters, Ekol. Morya, 1999, vol. 49, pp. 56–61.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Camus, T. and Zeng, C., Roles of microalgae on total egg production over female lifespan and egg incubation time, naupliar and copepodite survival, sex ratio and female life expectancy of the copepod Bestiolina similis, Aquacult. Res., 2010, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 1717–1726.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Coutteau, P., Micro-algae, in Manual on the Production and Use of Live Food for Aquaculture, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, no. 361, Rome: FAO, 1996, pp. 7–48.

  13. Fidalgo, J.P., Cid, A., Torres, E., et al., Effects of nitrogen source and growth phase on proximate biochemical composition, lipid classes and fatty acid profile of the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, Aquaculture, 1998, vol. 166, pp. 105–116.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Grindley, J.R., The zoogeography of the Pseudodiaptomidae, Crustaceana, 1984, suppl. 7, pp. 217–228.

  15. Guevara, M., Bastardo, L., Cortez, R., et al., Pastas de Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta) como alimento para Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera), Rev. Biol. Trop., 2011, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 1503–1515.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Herzig, A., The ecological significance of the relationship between temperature and duration of embryonic development in planktonic freshwater copepods, Hydrobiologia, 1983, vol. 100, pp. 65–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Jiménez-Melero, R., Parra, G., and Guerrero, F., Effect of temperature, food and individual variability on the embryonic development time and fecundity of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda: Calanoida) from a shallow saline pond, Hydrobiologia, 2012, vol. 686, pp. 241–256.

  18. Jiménez-Melero, R., Parra, G., Souissi, S., and Guerrero, F., Post-embryonic developmental plasticity of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda: Calanoida) at different temperatures, J. Plankton Res., 2007, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 553–567.

  19. Khanaichenko, A.N., Bitukova, Y.E., and Tkachenko, N.K., Experiences in rearing endemic Black Sea turbot larvae, in Turbot Culture: Problems and Prospects, Lavens, P. and Remmerswaal, R.A.M., Eds., European Aquaculture Society Special Publication no. 22, Gent, Belgium: Eur. Aquacult. Soc., pp. 349–358.

  20. Lacoste, A., Poulet, S.A., Cueff, A., et al., New evidence of the copepod maternal food effects on reproduction, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 2001, vol. 259, no. 1, pp. 85–107.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Lang, K., Monographie der Harpacticiden I, II, Lund, Sweden: Hakan Ohlssons Boktryckeri, 1948.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Makri, A., Bellou, S., Birkou, M., et al., Lipid synthesized by micro-algae grown in laboratory- and industrial-scale bioreactors, Eng. Life Sci., 2011, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 52–58.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Marcus, N.H., Calanoid copepods, resting eggs, and aquaculture, in Copepods in Aquaculture, Oxford: Blackwell, 2005, ch. 1, pp. 3–10.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Peterson, W.T., Patterns in stage duration and development among marine and freshwater calanoid and cyclopoid copepods: a review of rules, physiological constraints, and evolutionary significance, Hydrobiologia, 2001, vol. 453, pp. 91–105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Poulet, S.A. and Williams, R., Characteristics and properties of copepods affecting the recruitment of fish larvae, Bull. Plankton Soc. Jpn., 1991, spec. vol., pp. 271–290.

  26. Samchyshyna, L.V., Ecological characteristic of calanoids (Copepoda, Calanoida) of the inland waters of Ukraine, Vestn. Zool., 2008, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 32–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Støttrup, J.G., Richardson, K., Kirkegaard, E., and Pihl, N.J., The cultivation of Acartia tonsa Dana for use as a live food source for marine fish larvae, Aquaculture, 1986, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 87–96.

  28. Tolomeyev, A.P., Phytoplankton diet of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda, Calanoida) in Lake Shira (Khakasia), Aquat. Ecol., 2002, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 229–234.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Voordouw, M.J., Robinson, H.E., and Anholt, B.R., Paternal inheritance of the primary sex ratio in a copepod, J. Evol. Biol., 2005, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1304–1314.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Zhukova, N.V. and Aizdaicher, N.A., Fatty acid composition of 15 species of marine microalgae, Phytochemistry, 1995, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 351–356.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The study was carried out within the framework of the State assignment to the Kovalevsky Institute of Marine Biological Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, on the topic A study of the mechanisms of operation of production processes in biotechnological systems in order to develop scientific bases for obtaining biologically active substances and technical products of marine genesis (State registry no. AAAA-A18-118021350003-6).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to L. O. Aganesova.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interests. The author declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Statement on the welfare of animals. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Additional information

Translated by E. Shvetsov

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Aganesova, L.O. The Reproduction and Development of Brackish-Water Copepods That Were Fed Microalgae of Different Species. Russ J Mar Biol 47, 114–120 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • copepods
  • Arctodiaptomus salinus
  • Calanipeda aquaedulcis
  • cultivation
  • survival rate
  • development
  • Prorocentrum cordatum
  • Rhodomonas salina
  • Isochrysis galbana