Russian Journal of Marine Biology

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 132–139 | Cite as

Mechanisms of the adaptation of the Kildin cod Gadus morhua kildinensis Derjugin, 1920 (Pisces: Gadidae) to the specific conditions of Lake Mogilnoye

  • A. N. Stroganov
  • K. I. Afanasiev
  • V. A. Burmensky
  • L. A. Zhivotovsky
  • N. V. Zuykova
  • E. A. Kriksunov
  • N. V. Mukhina
  • M. P. Polyakov
  • G. A. Rubtsova
  • A. V. Semenova
  • A. M. Shadrin
  • O. Yu. Frolov


The mechanisms of the adaptation of the Kildin cod to the conditions of a meromictic lake were analyzed based on the study of morphological, biological, and genetic characteristics. Significant differences between the Kildin cod and Atlantic cod have been found in their morphological and genetic characteristics. The results of an X-ray microanalysis of otoliths, which were conducted for the first time, confirm that the distribution range of the Kildin cod in Lake Mogilnoye also extends to brackish waters. It has been shown that the formation of the reproductively isolated lacustrine population of Kildin cod is accompanied by specialization in a number of characteristics (body color, feeding strategy, behavior, etc.) and by a decrease in genetic diversity.


Kildin cod morphobiological characteristics genetic polymorphism X-ray microanalysis of otoliths 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ayala, F.J. and Kiger, J.A., Modern Genetics, Menlo Park: Benjamin Cummings, 1980, 2nd ed.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aleev, Yu.G., On the ways to reduce frontal drag in the external organization of fish, Tr. Sevastopol. Biol. Stn., Akad. Nauk Ukr. SSR, 1964, vol. 16, pp. 288–291.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Altukhov, Yu.P., Salmenkova, E.A., Kurbatova, O.L., et al., Dinamika populyatsionnykh genofondov pri antropogennykh vozdeistviyakh (Dynamics in Population Gene Pools Exposed to Anthropogenic Impacts), Moscow: Nauka, 2004.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andriyashev, A.P., Ryby severnykh morei SSSR (Fishes of the Northern Seas of the USSR), Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1954.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boitsov, V.D., Lebed, N.I., Ponomarenko, V.P., et al., Treska Barentseva morya: biologiya i promysel (Cod of the Barents Sea: Biology and Fishing), Murmansk: Polyarn. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Morsk. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2003, 2nd ed.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Devitsina, G.V., On the chemosensory and tactile provision of feeding behavior in codfishes of the White Sea, J. Ichthyiol., 1997, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 87–92.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Deryugin, K.M., Relict Lake Mogilnoye, Tr. Petergof. Estestv.-Nauchn. Inst., 1925, no. 2.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhivotovsky, L.A., Populyatsionnaya biometriya (Population Biometry), Moscow: Nauka, 1991.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ivanter, E.V. and Korosov, A.V., Vvedeniye v kolichestvennuyu biologiyu (Introduction into Quantitative Biology), Petrozavodsk: Petrozavodsk. Gos. Univ., 2003.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kasumyan, A.O., Taktil’naya retseptsiya i povedeniye ryb (Tactile Reception and Behavior of Fish), Moscow: MAKS, 2011.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Marti, Yu.Yu., Migratsii morskikh ryb (Migrations of Marine Fish), Moscow: Pishch. Prom-st, 1980.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nikolsky, G.V., Ekologiya ryb (Fish Ecology), Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1963.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nikolsky, G.V., Chastnaya ikhtiologiya (Special Ichthyology), Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1971.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Novikov, G.G., Afanas’ev, K.I., Rubtsova, G.A., and Stroganov, A.N., Some genetic parameters of Kildin cod Gadus morhua kildinensis (Gadidae, Gadiformes), J. Ichthyol., 2006, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 674–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Orlov, A.M., Stroganov, A.N., and Telegin, A.V., Perspective representatives of boreal-arctic ichthyofauna for expositions in oceanariums, Usp. Sovrem. Estestvozn., 2015, vol. 9, pp. 317–330.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pavlov, D.S. and Kasumyan, A.O., Raznoobraziye ryb po kharakteru i sposobu pitaniya (Diversity of Fish in the Pattern and Way of Feeding), Moscow: Mosk. Gos. Univ., 2002.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pavlov, D.S., Kuzishchin, K.V., Gruzdeva, M.A., et al., Life history strategy diversity in the Kamchatkan Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma (Walbaum) (Salmonidae, Salmoniformes): Ontogenetic reconstructions based on the data of X-ray fluorescence analysis of the microchemistry of recording structures, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 2013, vol. 450, no. 1, pp. 142–145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pravdin, I.F., Rukovodstvo po izucheniyu ryb (Guide to the Study of Fish), Moscow: Pishch. prom–st., 1966.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rass, T.S., Zhizn’ zhivotnykh (Ryby) (Life of Animals (Fishes)), Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1971, vol. 4, part 1.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Reliktovoye ozero Mogil’noye (Relict Lake Mogilnoye), Leningrad: Nauka, 1975.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reliktovoye ozero Mogil’noye (issledovaniya 1997–2000 gg.) (Relict Lake Mogilnoye (Studies of 1997–2000)), Murmansk: Polyarn. Nauchno–Issled. Inst. Morsk. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2002.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rokitsky, B.F., Biologicheskaya statistika (Biological Statistics), Minsk: Vysshaya Shkola, 1967.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Svetovidov, A.N., Gadiform fishes, in Fauna SSSR. Ryby (Fauna of the USSR. Fishes), Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1948, vol. 9, no. 4.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Serebryakov, V.P., Breeding of cod in the Northwest Atlantic, Tr. Polyarn. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Morsk. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr. im. N. M. Knipovicha, 1967, vol. 20, pp. 205–242.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stroganov, A.N., Afanasiev, K.I., Rubtsova, G.A., Rakitskaya, T.A., and Semenova, A.V., Data on variation of microsatellite loci in Kildin cod Gadus morhua kildinensis (Gadidae), J. Ichthyol., 2011, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 500–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stroganov, A.N., Kriksunov, E.A., Zuykova, N.V., Mukhina, N.V., Burmensky, V.A., Semenova, A.V., and Shadrin, A.M., The biological features of the Kildin cod, Gadus morhua kildinensis Derjugin, 1920 (Gadidae), Russ. J. Mar. Biol., 2015, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 424–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stroganov, A.N., Mukhina, N.V., Afanasyev, K.I., et al., On the complex expeditions to Lake Mogilnoye (Kildin Island, Barents Sea) in 2011 and 2012, Vestn. Astrakh. Gos. Tekh. Univ., Ser.: Rybn. Khoz., 2013, no. 3, pp. 86–90.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Suvorov, E.K., Osnovy ikhtiologii (Basics of Ichthyology), Moscow: Sov. Nauka, 1948.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fokin, M.V., Shunatova, N.N., Usov, N.V., et al., Nauchnyi otchet ekspeditsii SPbGU–MGTU–ZIN RAN na ostrov Kil’din i ozero Mogil’noye v avguste 2003 goda “Reliktovoye ozero Mogil’noye 2003” (Research Report on the Expedition of the St. Petersburg State University, Moscow State Technical University, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, to Kildin Island and Lake Mogilnoye in August 2003 “Relict Lake Mogilnoye 2003”), St. Petersburg: St.-Peterb. Gos. Univ., 2004.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hardie, D.C., Renaud, C.B., Ponomarenko V.P., Mukhina, N.V., Yaragina, N.A., Skjæraasen, J.E., and Hutchings, J.A., The isolation of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (Gadiformes), populations in Northern Meromictic lakes—a recurrent arctic phenomenon, J. Ichthyol., 2008, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 230–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Andreev, V., Fokin, M., Mugue, N., and Strelkov, P., Long-term persistence and evolutionary divergence of a marine fish population with a very small effective population size (Kildin cod Gadus morhua kildinensis), Mar. Biol., 2015, vol. 162, pp. 979–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Collins, T.J., ImageJ for microscopy, BioTechniques, 2007, vol. 43, no. S1, pp. 25–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cornuet, J.M. and Luikart, G., Description and power analysis of two tests for detecting recent population bottlenecks from allele frequency data, Genetics, 1996, vol. 144, pp. 2001–2014.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dannevig, A., The littoral cod of the Norwegian Skagerak coast, Rapp. P.–V. Reun.–Cons. Int. Explor. Mer., 1953, vol. 136, pp. 7–14.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dolgov, A.V., Johannesen, E., and Hoines, A., Main species and ecological importance, in The Barents Sea: Ecosystem, Resources, Management, Trondheim: Tapir, 2011, pp. 193–200.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gosse, K.R. and Wroblewski, J.S., Variant colourations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in Newfoundland and Labrador nearshore waters, ICES J. Mar. Sci., 2004, vol. 61, pp. 752–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hardie, D.C. and Hutchings, J.A., The ecology of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in Canadian Arctic lakes, Arctic, 2011, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 137–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lewis, P.O. and Zaykin, D., Genetic data analysis: Computer program for the analysis of allelic data, version 1.0, 2001. Cited March 3, 2016.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lord, C., Morat, F., Lecomte-Finiger, R., and Keith, P., Otolith shape analysis for three Sicyopterus (Teleostei: Gobioidei: Sicydiinae) species from New Caledonia and Vanuatu, Environ. Biol. Fish., 2012, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 209–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Peery, M.Z., Kirby, R., Reid, B.N., et al., Reliability of genetic bottleneck tests for detecting recent population declines, Mol. Ecol., 2012, vol. 21, pp. 3403–3418.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Piry, S., Luikart, G., and Conuet, J.M., Bottleneck: A computer program for detecting recent reduction in the effective population size using allele frequency data, J. Hered., 1999, vol. 90, pp. 502–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stein, M., Warming periods off Greenland during 1800–2005: Their potential influence on the abundance of cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) in Greenlandic waters, J. Northwest Atl. Fish. Sci., 2007, vol. 39, pp. 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Strelkov, P., Shunatova, N., Fokin, M., et al., Marine Lake Mogilnoye (Kildin Island, the Barents Sea): One hundred years of solitude, Polar Biol., 2014, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 297–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stroganov, A.N., Genus Gadus (Gadidae): composition, distribution, and evolution of forms, J. Ichthyol., 2015, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 319–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wieland, K. and Hovgard, H., Distribution and drift of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs and larvae in Greenland offshore waters, J. Northwest Atl. Fish. Sci., 2002, vol. 30, pp. 61–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhivotovsky, L.A., Teterina, A.A., Mukhina, N.V., et al., Effects of genetic drift in a small population of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua kildinensis Derjugin) landlocked in a meromictic lake: Genetic variation and conservation measures, Conserv. Genet., 2016, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 229–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stroganov, A.N., Lepesevich, N.A., Shevelev, M.S., and Novikov, G.G., Atlantic cod Gadus morhua (Gadiformes: Gadidae) from the Gulf of Ura: Morphobiological characteristic, J. Ichthyol., 2010, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 252–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. N. Stroganov
    • 1
  • K. I. Afanasiev
    • 2
  • V. A. Burmensky
    • 1
  • L. A. Zhivotovsky
    • 2
  • N. V. Zuykova
    • 3
  • E. A. Kriksunov
    • 1
  • N. V. Mukhina
    • 3
  • M. P. Polyakov
    • 1
  • G. A. Rubtsova
    • 2
  • A. V. Semenova
    • 1
  • A. M. Shadrin
    • 1
  • O. Yu. Frolov
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Vavilov Institute of General GeneticsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Knipovich Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and OceanographyMurmanskRussia

Personalised recommendations