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Ore and Backfill Dilution in Underground Hard Rock Mining

Abstract

The ore dilution is generally defined as the degradation of economical and valuable ore with the addition of the unwanted host rock, failed backfilled material and or ore material considered below the cut-off the grade. The importance of ore dilution on the profitability of a mining operation is very well known and also well documented, since, it adds to the cost of mining, hauling, transportation, milling and processing etc. It also differs from one mining operation to another, the ore type being extracted, the type of the host rock present and type of mining method applied, type of backfilling method and material used, including other mining parameters. The ore dilution is generally expected at all stages of mining operation including the very first step of stoping in the case of hard rock mining, where, the low-grade ore is extracted un-intentionally or intentionally to insure the safe mining environment including excavation stability and or towards the easy movement of men and machineries. It is well known that the numerous parameters including mining and rock mechanics influence the occurrence of ore dilution in the case of underground hard rock mining. Herewith, through review study, the problem of ore dilution, various factors affecting dilution, its measurement and possible control measures is discussed.

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Bagde, M.N. Ore and Backfill Dilution in Underground Hard Rock Mining. J Min Sci 57, 995–1005 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1062739121060120

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S1062739121060120

Keywords

  • ore dilution
  • backfill
  • hard rock mining
  • stoping
  • measurement
  • control measures