Journal of Mining Science

, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp 733–744

A new approach to constrained open pit pushback design using dynamic cut-off grades

Mineral Mining Technology


An integral part of open pit optimization is deciding which section of the ultimate pit to mine during a specific period. For a given period there are often operational and marketing constraints that restrict what can be removed or processed. The operational constraints arise from a number of different limitations such as safe slope of internal mining walls, mill and mining capacity. Traditional methods for pushback (phase) design that incorporate these constraints are ad-hoc and can lead to suboptimal solutions. Another important optimization decision that must be made is the cut-off grade to be used for a specific period. In this paper, a new method is presented that generates near maximal expected profit and dynamically defines the optimal cut-off grade for each mining period or pushback over the life-of-mine, thus deciding whether a block is ore or waste during the optimization process. More specifically, a method for converting a fractional linear program solution into an integral solution known as pipage rounding is applied to an integer program formulation of a pushback design optimization problem. The proposed method aims to produce a set of pushbacks in a way that the total discounted profit to be generated through production scheduling is maximized. Two case studies demonstrate the applied aspects of the proposed method.


Pit design gap problem integer programming pipage rounding cut-off grade 


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.COSMO—Stochastic Mine Planning LaboratoryMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Newmont Mining CorporationDenverUSA

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