Skip to main content
Log in

Protective Effect of Echinops persicus Extract on Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Various Rat Tissues after Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxication

  • Published:
Biology Bulletin Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Medicinal plants have been proposed as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment and prevention of various oxidative stress-related disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Echinops persicus (Ec.P) extract on catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in different rat tissues after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication. A total of 38 rats weighing 180–210 g were randomly divided into eight groups of five. Rats in group 1 received only a standard diet and served as the control group, those in group 2 were given olive oil, and the rats in group 3 received olive oil + CCl4. Groups 4 to 8 were experimental groups. Rats of the experimental groups received olive oil + CCl4 in a ratio of 1 : 1 v/v daily for 7 days. After this period, vitamins C and E were given in 10 mg/kg doses to groups 4 and 5, respectively. Rats of groups 6, 7, and 8 were also treated with 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg body weight of Ec.P extract, respectively, for the next seven days. The kidney, liver, and heart supernatants of all rats were used to measure enzyme activities. Results: Decreased activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx were found in the liver, kidney, and heart after CCl4 intoxication. The aqueous extract of Ec.P showed a significant protective effect by elevating antioxidant enzyme activities, compared to vitamins C and E in a dose and tissue-dependent manner. The obtained results of the current study highlighted the protective effect of Ec.P extract on antioxidant enzyme activities. The Ec.P could probably be significant in treating oxidative stress-related disorders.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Abbas, Z.K., Saggu, S., Sakeran, M.I., Zidan, N., Rehman, H., and Ansari, A.A., Phytochemical, antioxidant and mineral composition of hydroalcoholic extract of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) leaves, Saudi J. Biol. Sci., 2015, vol. 22, pp. 322–326.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ahmadabad, H., Firizi, M., and Behnamfar, M., Immunostimulatory effects of trehala manna ethanolic extract on splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages in vitro, J. Med. Plants Nat. Prod., 2016, vol. 1, pp. 23–32.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Al-Razzuqi, R., Al-Jawad, F., Al-Hussaini, J., and Al-Jeboori, A., Hepatoprotective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra in carbon tetrachloride-induced model of acute liver injury, J. Phys. Pharm. Adv., 2012, vol. 2, pp. 259–263.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Asadi Rad, A., Najafzadeh-Varzi, H., and Farajzadeh-Sheikh, A., Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Echinops persicus on experimental gastric ulcer models in rats, Vet. Res. Forum, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, 2010, pp. 188–191.

  5. Ashour, M.N., Megahed, H.A., Morsy, S.M., Eltoukhy, S.I., Youness, E.R., Habib, D.F., and Wafai, H.A., Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of garlic oil in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci., 2011, vol. 5, pp. 280–286.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Becana, M., Aparicio-Tejo, P., Irigoyen, J. J., and Sanchez-diaz, M., Some enzymes of hydrogen peroxide metabolism in leaves and root nodules of Medicago sativa, Plant Physiol., 1986, vol. 82, pp. 1169–1171.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. Bitew, H. and Hymete, A., The genus Echinops: phytochemistry and biological activities: a review, Front. Pharmacol., 2019, vol. 10, p. 1234.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. De, S., Adhikari, S., Tilak-Jain, J., Menon, V., and Devasagayam, T., Antioxidant activity of an aminothiazole compound: possible mechanisms, Chem.-Biol. Interact., 2008, vol. 173, pp. 215–223.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Desta, B., Ethiopian traditional herbal drugs. Part II: Antimicrobial activity of 63 medicinal plants, J. Ethnopharmacol., 1993, vol. 39, pp. 129–139.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. El-Sayed, Y.S., Lebda, M.A., Hassinin, M., and Neoman, S.A., Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root extract regulates the oxidative status and antioxidant gene transcripts in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, PLoS One, 2015, vol. 10, p. e0121549.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Elgengaihi, S., Mossa, A.-T.H., Refaie, A.A., and Aboubaker, D., Hepatoprotective efficacy of Cichorium intybus L. extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats, J. Dietary Suppl., 2016, vol. 13, pp. 570–584.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Flora, S., Role of free radicals and antioxidants in health and disease, Cell. Mol. Biol., 2007, vol. 53, pp. 1–2.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Hugo, A. and Lester, P., Catalase in vitro, Methods Enzymol., 1984, vol. 105, pp. 121–126.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Hussain, S., Ashafaq, M., Alshahrani, S., Siddiqui, R., Ahmed, R.A., Khuwaja, G., and Islam, F., Cinnamon oil against acetaminophen-induced acute liver toxicity by attenuating inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis, Toxicol. Rep., 2020, vol. 7, pp. 1296–1304.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Jalili, C., Salahshoor, M.R., and Naderi, T., The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of P. crispum on sperm parameters, testis tissue and serum nitric oxide levels in mice, Adv. Biomed. Res., 2020, vol. 4.

  16. Lee, H.-W., Ko, Y.-H., and Lim, S.-B., Effects of selected plant extracts on anti-oxidative enzyme activities in rats, Food Chem., 2012, vol. 132, pp. 1276–1280.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Lobo, V., Patil, A., Phatak, A., and Chandra, N., Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health, Pharmacogn. Rev., 2010, vol. 4, p. 118.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. Lowry, O., Rosebrough, N., Farr, A., and Randall, R., Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent, J. Biol. Chem., 1951, vol. 193, pp. 265–275.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Mahmoudabady, M., Lashkari, M., Niazmand, S., and Soukhtanloo, M., Cardioprotective effects of Achillea wilhelmsii on the isolated rat heart in ischemia–reperfusion, J. Tradit. Complementary Med., 2017, vol. 7, pp. 501–507.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Mladenov, M., Gokik, M., Hadzi-Petrushev, N., Gjorgoski, I., and Jankulovski, N., The relationship between antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in senescent rat erythrocytes, Physiol. Res., 2015, vol. 64, p. 891.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Mohamed, D.A., Hamed, T.E., and Al-Okbi, S.Y., Reduction in hypercholesterolemia and risk of cardiovascular diseases by mixtures of plant food extract: a study on plasma lipid profile, oxidative stress and testosterone in rats, Grasas Aceites, 2010, vol. 61, pp. 378–389.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Mohseni, S., Sani, A.M., Tavakoli, M., and Raoufi, A.M., Effect of extraction conditions on antioxidant activities of Echinops persicus, J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants, 2017, vol. 20, pp. 1633–1644.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Nasseri, M.A., Keshtkar, H., Kazemnejadi, M., and Allahresani, A., Phytochemical properties and antioxidant activity of Echinops persicus plant extract: green synthesis of carbon quantum dots from the plant extract, SN Appl. Sci., 2020, vol. 2, pp. 1–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Olorunnisola, O.S., Bradley, G., and Afolayan, A.J., Protective effect of T. violacea rhizome extract against hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats, Molecules, 2012, vol. 17, pp. 6033–6045.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. Oshaghi, E.A., Khodadadi, I., Tavilani, H., and Goodarzi, M.T., Effect of dill tablet (Anethum graveolens L.) on antioxidant status and biochemical factors on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage on rat, Int. J. Appl. Basic Med. Res., 2016, vol. 6, p. 111.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. Rafieian-Kopaei, M., Baradaran, A., and Rafieian, M., Plants antioxidants: from laboratory to clinic, J. Nephropathol., 2013, vol. 2.

  27. Rubiolo, J.A., Mithieux, G., and Vega, F.V., Resveratrol protects primary rat hepatocytes against oxidative stress damage: activation of the Nrf2 transcription factor and augmented activities of antioxidant enzymes, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2008, vol. 591, pp. 66–72.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Saggu, S., Sakeran, M.I., Zidan, N., Tousson, E., Mohan, A., and Rehman, H., Ameliorating effect of chicory (Chichorium intybus L.) fruit extract against 4-tert-octylphenol induced liver injury and oxidative stress in male rats, Food Chem. Toxicol., 2014, vol. 72, pp. 138–146.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Sathiyamoorthy, P., Lugasi-evgi, H., Schlesinger, P., Kedar, I., Gopas, J., Pollack, Y., and Golan-Goldhirsh, A., Screening for cytotoxic and antimalarial activities in desert plants of the Negev and Bedouin market plant products, Pharm. Biol., 1999, vol. 37, pp. 188–195.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Seifried, H.E., Anderson, D.E., Fisher, E.I., and Milner, J.A., A review of the interaction among dietary antioxidants and reactive oxygen species, J. Nutr. Biochem., 2007, vol. 18, pp. 567–579.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Sethiya, N.K., Shah, P., Rajpara, A., Nagar, P., and Mishra, S., Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of mixed micellar lipid formulation of phyllanthin and piperine in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rodents, Food Funct., 2015, vol. 6, pp. 3593–3603.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Shukla, Y., Chemical, botanical and pharmacological studies on the genus Echinops: a review, J. Med. Aromat. Plant Sci., 2003, vol. 25, pp. 720–732.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Soori, M., Abbaspour, H., and Hashemi-moghaddam, H., Assessment of microwave assisted and hydrodistllation extraction on Echinops persicus essential oils chemical composition and evaluation of its biological activity, Tradit. Med. Res., 2019, vol. 4, p. 246.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Soori, M., Ghaffar, B., and Soleimani, S., A comparative study on the anti-bacterial effect of Echinops persicus, Cardamine uliginosa and Vaccaria oxyodontha Boiss on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria in vitro, TMR Integr. Med., 2022, vol. 6, p. e22006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Trivedi, A., Singh, N., Bhat, S.A., Gupta, P. and Kumar, A., Redox biology of tuberculosis pathogenesis, Adv. Microb. Physiol., 2012, vol. 60, pp. 263–324.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Vorontsova, M.S., The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. 8: Flowering Plants. Monocots. Poaceae, Oxford Univ. Press, 2016.

  37. Vural, C. and Şapci, H., Five new records of the genus Echinops (Asteraceae) from Turkey, Turk. J. Bot., 2012, vol. 36, pp. 151–160.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Wendel, A., Glutathione peroxidase, Methods Enzymol., 1981, vol. 77, pp. 325–333.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Weydert, C.J. and Cullen, J.J., Measurement of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in cultured cells and tissue, Nat. Prot., 2010, vol. 5, pp. 51–66.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Yang, C.-C., Fang, J.-Y., Hong, T.-L., Wang, T.-C., Zhou, Y.-E., and Lin, T.-C., Potential antioxidant properties and hepatoprotective effects of an aqueous extract formula derived from three Chinese medicinal herbs against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats, Int. Immunopharmacol., 2013, vol. 15, pp. 106–113.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Young, I., and Woodside, J., Antioxidants in health and disease, J. Clin. Pathol., 2001, vol. 54, pp. 176–186.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. Yu, W.-J., Chang, C.-C., Kuo, T.-F., Tsai, T.-C., and Chang, S.-J., Toona sinensis Roem leaf extracts improve antioxidant activity in the liver of rats under oxidative stress, Food Chem. Toxicol., 2012, vol. 50, pp. 1860–1865.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


We appreciate the Clinical Research Development Unit of Ghaem Hospital for the valuable help.


Financial and technical support from the office for Islamic Azad University research affairs, Damghan Branch, are gratefully acknowledged.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



Conceptualization: Maryam Soori, Hossein Abbaspour, Seyed Hossein Hashemi, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Zeynab Soori, Hassan Mehrad-Majd.

Methodology: Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Hossein Abbaspour, Seyed Hossein Hashemi, Maryam Soori, Hassan Mehrad-Majd.

Validation: Maryam Soori, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Zeynab Soori, Hassan Mehrad-Majd, Seyed Hossein Hashemi.

Formal Analysis: Maryam Soori, Hossein Abbaspour, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Seyed Hossein Hashemi, Zeynab Soori, Hassan Mehrad-Majd.

Investigation: Maryam Soori, Hossein Abbaspour, Seyed Hossein Hashemi, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Hassan Mehrad-Majd, Zeynab Soori.

Resources: Maryam Soori, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Zeynab Soori, Hassan Mehrad-Majd, Hossein Abbaspour, Seyed Hossein Hashemi.

Data Creation: Seyed Hossein Hashemi, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Hassan Mehrad-Majd, Zeynab Soori, Maryam Soori.

Writing—Original Draft Preparation: Maryam Soori, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Zeynab Soori, Hassan Mehrad-Majd, Hossein Abbaspour, Seyed Hossein Hashemi.

Writing—Review and Editing: Maryam Soori, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Hassan Mehrad-Majd.

Visualization: Maryam Soori, Hassan Mehrad-Majd, Hossein Abbaspour, Seyed Hossein Hashemi.

Supervision: Hossein Abbaspour, Seyed Hossein Hashemi, Maryam Soori.

Project Administration: Maryam Soori, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Seyed Hossein Hashemi, Hossein Abbaspour.

Funding Acquisition: Maryam Soori.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Maryam Soori.

Ethics declarations


This research was approved at the Islamic Azad University, Damghan Branch, Damghan, Iran with thesis code 14230520922007 September 21, 2021.


The authors of this work declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note.

Pleiades Publishing remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Maryam Soori, Goodarzi, M.T., Mehrad-Majd, H. et al. Protective Effect of Echinops persicus Extract on Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Various Rat Tissues after Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxication. Biol Bull Russ Acad Sci 51, 251–259 (2024).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: