Journal of Analytical Chemistry

, Volume 70, Issue 10, pp 1218–1224 | Cite as

Rapid microwave assisted preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for the analysis of fatty acid profiles in foods

Articles

Abstract

A microwave (MW) assisted rapid high through-put method for the preparation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for the analysis of fatty acid profiles in a selection of foods was evaluated by comparing fatty acid profiles with those resulting from conventional FAME preparation. The microwave method gave fatty acid profiles in close agreement with those arising from conventional methods and the protocol gave acceptable recoveries (98–102%) and repeatability (RSDs for replicate analyses were 0.56–5.2%). In comparison to conventional methods the MW assisted method was simple, rapid and universally effective across foods ranging from dairy products to ready meals. EU regulation (No. 1169/2011) requiring declaration of the saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated content of foods is placing pressure on processors and contract laboratories to analyse fatty acid profiles using relatively low through-put conventional methods. MW assisted preparation of FAMEs offers analysts a high-through-put, rapid and universal method to help overcome this potentially costly and labour intensive regulatory hurdle.

Keywords

FAMEs analysis fatty acid analysis fatty acid profiling fatty acid GC fat analysis GC 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Carrapiso, A.I. and Garciía, C., Lipids, 2000, vol. 35, no. 11, p. 1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Seppänen-Laakso, T., Laakso, I., and Hiltunen, R., Anal. Chim. Acta, 2002, vol. 465, no. 1, p. 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tranchida, P.Q., Donato, P., Dugo, G., Mondello, L., and Dugo, P., TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem., 2007, vol. 26, no. 3, p. 191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    James, A. and Martin, A., Biochem. J., 1952, vol. 50, no. 5, p. 679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    James, A. and Martin, A., Biochem. J., 1956, vol. 63, no. 1, p. 144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Orr, C.H. and Callen, J.E., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1958, vol. 80, no. 1, p. 249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ichihara, K.I. and Fukubayashi, Y., J. Lipid Res., 2010, vol. 51, no. 3, p. 635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Masood, A., Stark, K.D., and Salem, N., J. Lipid Res., 2005, vol. 46, no. 10, p. 2299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    O’Fallon, J., Busboom, J., Nelson, M., and Gaskins, C., J. Anim. Sci., 2007, vol. 85, no. 6, p. 1511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    European Commission. Off. J. Europ. Union, 2011, p. 304.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nüchter, M., Ondruschka, B., Bonrath, W., and Gum, A., Green Chem., 2004, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Azcan, N. and Danisman, A., Fuel, 2007, vol. 86, no. 17, p. 2639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Azcan, N. and Danisman, A., Fuel, 2008, vol. 87, no. 10, p. 1781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vyas, A.P., Verma, J.L., and Subrahmanyam, N., Fuel, 2010, vol. 89, no. 1, p. 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang, S., Zu, Y.G., Fu, Y.J., Luo, M., Zhang, D.Y., and Efferth, T., Bioresour. Technol., 2010, vol. 101, no. 3, p. 931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Patil, P.D., Gude, V.G., Mannarswamy, A., Cooke, P., Munson-McGee, S., Nirmalakhandan, N., Lammers, P., and Deng, S., Bioresour. Technol., 2010, vol. 102, no. 2, p. 1399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jeyashoke, N., Krisnangkura, K., and Chen, S.T., J. Chromatogr. A, 1998, vol. 818, no. 1, p. 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kramer, J.G., Fellner, V., Dugan, M.R., Sauer, F., Mossoba, M., and Yurawecz, M., Lipids, 1997, vol. 32, no. 11, p. 1219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Park, P. and Goins, R., J. Food Sci., 1994, vol. 59, no. 6, p. 1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Juarez, M., Marco, A., Brunton, N., Lynch, B., Troy, D., and Mullen, A., Food Chem., 2009, vol. 117, no. 3, p. 393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wagner, K.H., Plasser, E., Proell, C., and Kanzler, S., Food Chem., 2008, vol. 108, no. 3, p. 1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database 05, Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2005.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stoop, W.M., van Arendonk, J.A.M., Heck, J.M.L., van Valenberg, H.J.F., and Bovenhuis, H., J. Dairy Sci., 2008, vol. 91, p. 385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    DePeters, E.J., German, J.B., Taylor, S.J., Essex, S.T., and Perez-Monti, H., J. Dairy Sci., 2001, vol. 84, p. 929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chardigny, J.M., Wolff, R.L., Mager, E., Bayard, C.C., Sebedio, J.L., Martine, L., and Ratnayake, W.M.N., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1996, vol. 73, no. 1, p. 1595.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cantellops, D., Reid, A.P., Eitenmiller, R.R., and Long, A.R., J. AOAC Int., 1999, vol. 82, p. 1128.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Santos, C., Ordonez, J.A., Cambero, I., D’Arrigo, M., and Hoz, L., Food Chem., 2004, vol. 88, no. 1, p. 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cortinas, L., Villaverde, C., Galobart, J., Baucells, M.D., Codony, R., and Barroeta, A.C., Poultry Sci., 2004, vol. 83, no. 7, p. 1155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Release 26, 2013.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    El-Rawas, A., Hvizdzak, A., Davenport, M., Beamer, S., Jaczynski, J., and Matak, K., Food Chem., 2012, vol. 133, p. 212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stefanoudaki, E., Kotsifaki, F., and Koutsaftakis, A., J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 1999, vol. 6, no. 5, p. 623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kamal-Eldin, A., and Andersson. R., J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 1997, vol. 74, no. 4, p. 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cartwright, G., McManus, B.H., Leffler, T.P., and Moser, C.R., J. AOAC Int., 2005, vol. 88, no. 1, p. 107.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Keeton, J.T., Hafley, B.S., Eddy, S.M., Moser, C.R., McManus, B.J., and Leffler, T.P., J. AOAC Int., 2003, vol. 86, no. 6, p. 1193.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agriculture and Food ScienceUniversity College Dublin (UCD)Belfield, Dublin 4Ireland
  2. 2.CEM CorporationMatthewsUSA

Personalised recommendations