Journal of Analytical Chemistry

, Volume 70, Issue 7, pp 819–824 | Cite as

Simultaneous detection and quantification of zeatin and kinetin in coconut water using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with a simple step solid phase extraction

  • C. M. Y. Mooi
  • S. P. Koh
  • K. LongEmail author


Trans-zeatin and kinetin are two cytokinin family members that exhibit an anti-aging effect on human fibroblast cells. These cytokinins can be found in coconut water and in the xylem sap of most plants. This study describes the first attempt of a simultaneous separation of zeatin and kinetin using a simple C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) method coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). This method provided high recoveries of 95.2 and 98.6% for trans-zeatin and kinetin, respectively. Malayan Green Dwarf, a local coconut variety, was found to contain 14 μg/L trans-zeatin and 4 μg/L kinetin. This method will be useful for comprehensive research on different coconut varieties and determining the contents of cytokinins in coconut water.


cytokinins kinetin zeatin solid phase extraction coconut water 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Mok, D.W. and Mok, M.C., Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol., 2001, vol. 52, p. 89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kamboj, J.S., Blake, P.S., Quinlan, J.D., and Baker, D.A., Plant Growth Regul., 1999, vol. 28, p. 199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Letham, D.S., in Phytohormones and Related Compounds: a Comprehensive Treatise. Cytokinins, Letham, D.S., Goodwin, P.B., and Higgins, T.J.V.H, Eds., Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1978.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Miller, C.O., Skoog, F., Okumura, F.S., von Saltza, M.H., and Strong, F.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1955, vol. 77, p. 2662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Amasino, R., Plant Physiol., 2005, vol. 138, p. 1177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dahiya, A. and Romano, J.F., Cosmet. Dermatol., 2006, vol. 19, p. 479.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Minorsky, P.V., Plant Physiol., 2003, vol. 132, p. 1135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rattan, S.I.S. and Sodagam, L., Rejuvenation Res., 2005, vol. 8, p. 46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jung, M.S., Kelly, K.M., and McCullough, J.L., in Skin Aging: Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment. Prevention and Treatment of Age-Related Diseases, Rattan, S. and Kassem, M., Eds., New York: Springer, 2006.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Anurag, P. and Rajamohan, T., Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 2003, vol. 58, p. 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Choi, S.J., Jeong, C.H., Choi, S.G., Chun, J.Y., Kim, Y.J., Lee, J., Shin, D.H., and Heo, H.J., J. Med. Food, 2009, vol. 12, p. 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yong, J.W., Ge, L., Ng, Y.F., and Tan, S.N., Molecules, 2009, vol. 14, p. 5144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kudoyarovo, G., Veselov, D., Symonyan, M., Mustafina, A., Dedov, A., Vysotzkaya, L., and Veselov, S., in Recent Advances in Plant Root Structure and Function, Gašparíkov-, O., iamporová, M., Mistrík, I., and Baluška, F., Eds., Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2001.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ma, Z., Ge, L., Lee, A.S., Wan, J.H., Tan, S.N., and Ong, E.S., Anal. Chim. Acta, 2008, vol. 610, p. 274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yong, J.W.H., Wong, S.C., Letham, D.S., Hocart, C.H., and Farquhar, G.D., Plant Physiol., 2000, vol. 124, p. 767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ge, L., Yong, J.W.H., Goh, N.K., Chia, L.S., Tan, S.N., and Ong, E.S., J. Chromatogr. B: Anal. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci., 2005, vol. 829, p. 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Genkov, T., Ivanov, I., and Inanova, I., Bulg. J. Plant Physiol., 1996, vol. 22, p. 95.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Innovation and Commercialisation Division, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) Level 3, Block C4, Complex CFederal Government Administrative CentrePutrajayaMalaysia
  2. 2.Biotechnology Research CentreMalaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI)Kuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations