Advertisement

Determination of sulphide in the presence of sulphate in water by capillary electrophoresis with a high-sensitivity cell

  • D. Abd El-Hady
Articles

Abstract

A sensitive and selective capillary electrophoresis method with indirect UV-detection employing a high-sensitivity cell of special design was used for the determination of sulphide in the presence of sulphate in drinking and wastewaters. The running buffer consisted of chromate, tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, glutathione and polethylene glycol at pH 10.0. The use of a high-sensitivity cell and the addition of polyethylene glycol were the key factors of improving sensitivity and selectivity of the proposed method. The method was proved suitable for its intended use by applying the procedure starting from the calibration of the CE instrument to validation of all experimental parameters. The resolution factor between sulphide and sulphate under optimal conditions was found to be about 2.0. The limits of detection (LODs) of sulphide and sulphate were 2.0 and 0.3 ng/mL, respectively. Analysis of standard mixtures of sulphide and sulphate gave good linearity in the ranges of 5.0–500.0 and 2.0–160.0 ng/mL, respectively, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.994 and 0.996 at 95% confidence level. Application of the proposed method to the analysis of water was successfully achieved and statistically confirmed. It is important to note that in drinking water ultra trace concentrations of sulphide ions were successfully detected by the current method.

Keywords

Sulphide Capillary Electrophoresis Migration Time Capillary Electrophoresis System Capillary Electrophoresis Method 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Smith, R.L., Ecology and Field Biology, New York: Harper&Row, 1974, 2nd ed.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thienes, C.H. and Haley, T.J., Clinical Toxicology, Philadelphia: Lea&Febiger, 1972, 5th ed.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arthur, D.L., Water Quality Criteria Data Book, Water Pollut. Control Res. Ser. No. DPV 18010, Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1971, vol. 2.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Larson, T.E., A Handbook of Public Water Supplies, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971, 3rd ed.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Safavi, A. and Ramezani, Z., Talanta, 1997, vol. 44, p. 1225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arowolo, T.A. and Cresser, M.S., Microchem. J., 1992, vol. 45, p. 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kester, M.D., Shiundu, P.M., and Wade, A.P., Talanta, 1992, vol. 39, p. 299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Koh, T. and Okabe, K., Analyst, 1994, vol. 119, p. 2457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Umiker, K.J., Morra, M.J., and Cheng, I.F., Microchem. J., 2002, vol. 73, p. 287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Von Wandruszka, R., Yuan, X., and Morra, M.J., Talanta, 1993, vol. 40, p. 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Manova, A., Strelec, M., Cacho, F., Lehotay, J., and Beinrohr, E., Anal. Chim. Acta, 2007, vol. 588, p. 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rucklin, R.D. and Johnson, E.L., Anal. Chem., 1983, vol. 55, p. 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maya, F., Esteh, J.M., and Cerda, V., Anal. Chim. Acta, 2007, vol. 601, p. 87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hara, H. and Okazai, S., Analyst, 1984, vol. 109, p. 1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hengstenberg, J., Sturm, B., and Winkler, O., Messen, Steuern Und Regeln in Der Chemischen Technik (Measurement, Control, and Regulations in Chemical Technics), Berlin: Springer, 1980, vol. 2.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    O’Reilly, J.W., Dicinoski, G.W., Shaw, M.J., and Haddad, P.R., Anal. Chim. Acta, 2001, vol. 432, p. 165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sara, M.V. and Stefano, P., J. Chromatogr., A, 1999, vol. 834, p. 363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jones, W.R. and Jandik, P., Am. Lab., 1990, vol. 22, p. 5.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Paulonis, M.A. and Krishnagopalan, J., J. Pulp Paper Sci., 1994, vol. 20, p. J254.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gebauer, P., Demi, M., Bocek, P., and Janak, J., J. Chromatogr., A, 1983, vol. 267, p. 455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaniansky, D., Zelensky, I., Havasi, P., and Cerovsky, M., J. Chromatogr., A, 1986, vol. 367, p. 274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sullivan, J. and Douek, M., J. Chromatogr., A, 2004, vol. 1039, p. 215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Giovanelli, D., Lawrence, N.S., Jiang, L., Jones, T.G.J., and Compton, R.G., Sens. Actuators, B, 2003, vol. 88, p. 320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wilson, B.L., Schwarzer, R.R., and Chukwuenye, C.O., Microchem. J., 1982, vol. 27, p. 558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    El-Hady, D. and El-Maali, N., Talanta, 2008, vol. 76, p. 138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    ASTM International D 6508-00, Ann. Book of ASTM Standards, vol. 11.01, 2000.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Serwe, M., New ASTM Standard: Recommended Operating Conditions for the Agilent CE, Agilent Technologies Application Brief Publ. no. 5968-8660E, 2000.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Macka, M., Andersson, P., and Haddad, P.R., Anal. Chem., 1998, vol. 70, p. 743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J.M.C., Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1989, 2nd ed.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Harakuwe, A.H. and Haddad, A.R., TrAC Trends Anal. Chem., 2001, vol. 20, p. 375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sarmini, K. and Kenndler, E., J. Chromatogr., A, 1997, vol. 792, p. 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Masar, M., Kaniansky, D., and Madajova, V., J. Chromatogr., A, 1996, vol. 724, p. 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Validation of Analytical Procedures, ICH-Q2A, Int. Conf. on Harmonization (ICH) of Technical Requirements for The Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Geneva, 1995.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    US EPA Guidance for Methods Development and Methods Validation for The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Program, Washington, DC, 1995.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ph. Eur/DAB (German Pharmacopoeia, Official Edition), Stuttgart: Deutscher Apotheker, 1996, Methods 2.2.28 and 2.2.29.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Balasubramanian, S. and Pugalenthi, V., Water Res., 2000, vol. 34, p. 4201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Abd El-Hady
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceAssiut UniversityAssiutEgypt

Personalised recommendations