In this article we present new lossless compression methods by combining existing methods and compare them using AVIRIS images. These methods include the Self-Organizing Map (SOM), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and the three-dimensional Wavelet Transform combined with traditional lossless encoding methods. The two-dimensional JPEG2000 and SPIHT compression methods were applied to the eigenimages produced by the PCA. The bit allocation for the compression of eigenimages was based on the amount of information in each eigenimage. In bit rate calculation we used the exponential entropy formula, which gave better results than the original linear version. The information loss from the compression was measured by the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Peak-Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR). To get more illustrative and practical error measures, classification of spectra was performed using unsupervised K-means clustering combined with spectral matching. Spectral matching methods include Euclidean distance, Spectral Similarity Value (SSV), and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). We used two test images, which both were AVIRIS images with 224 bands and 512 lines in 614 columns. The PCA in the spectral dimension combined with JPEG2000 or SPIHT in the spatial dimension was the best method in terms of the image quality and compression speed.
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Arto Kaarna. Received MS (Mech. Eng.) degree in 1980, LicTech degree in 1990, and PhD (Tech.) in 2000 in computer science at Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland (LUT). Currently working as a professor in media in networks with LUT. His main research interest is in color and spectral image processing.
Pekka Toivanen. Professor in Information Technology, graduated from Helsinki University of Technology in 1989. Worked at Nokia Electronics and Nokia Information Systems. In 1988–1991, worked at the Technical Research Centre of Finland as a researcher. Since 1991, working in the Department of Information Technology at the Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT). Received PhD (Tech.) in 1996. Worked as an acting associate professor and professor in 1997–1999. In 2000, was on a one-year research visit to Linköping University/Campus Norrköpping, Sweden. Nominated as a professor in 2001 to Lappeenranta University of Technology. Head of the Laboratory of Information Processing at LUT. Member of SPIE and IEEE. Eleven international journal articles and 51 international conference publications. His main research interests are hyper-and multispectral image analysis, color, and distance transforms.
Pekka Keränen. Master of Science student and research assistant in the Department of Information Technology at the Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland (LUT). Currently doing research in hyperspectral image compression and hyperspectral image quality measuring.
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Kaarna, A., Toivanen, P. & Keränen, P. Compression and classification methods for hyperspectral images. Pattern Recognit. Image Anal. 16, 413–424 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1054661806030114