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Long-Term Variability of the Composition of Near-Surface Aerosol over Desertified and Arid Zones in Southern Russia

  • OPTICS OF CLUSTERS, AEROSOLS, AND HYDROSOLES
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Abstract

We analyzed multiyear (2007–2021) complex experimental studies of microphysical parameters, mass concentration, and elemental composition of aerosol particles in the near-surface atmospheric layer of semiarid zones in the south of European Russia. Background values of the daily average mass concentration of near-surface aerosols in desertified areas of Kalmykia and the dry-steppe zone of Rostov oblast for the hot summer period are found to be 125 and 34 μg/m3, respectively. The particle size distribution functions specific for atmospheric aerosols of the south of European Russia, are determined. An interrelation is found between the particle emission from the surface to the atmosphere and the main atmospheric processes. Long-term variations in elemental composition of near-surface aerosol are studied. Minor variations are identified in the mass concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Cu in the composition of aerosol particles in Rostov oblast. The elemental composition of Kalmykia aerosols stronger varies in terms of the contents of both natural and technogenic elements, mainly of chemical elements of salt balance and heavy metals. It is shown that most elements are weakly accumulated in aerosols, and their differentiation is heavier dependent on the mosaic character of the underlying surface. The multiyear period under study is characterized by the tendency of removing the harmful admixtures from the atmosphere of desertified territories in the south of European Russia due to reducing the climate aridization and mitigating the anthropogenic effect.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors thank V.A. Lebedev, A.A. Khapaev, and Yu.I. Obvintsev for assistance in support and conducting the field measurements as part of long-term observations of aerosol physicochemical parameters in Kalmykia and at IAP RAS TSS.

Funding

This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant no. 20-17-00214).

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Correspondence to D. P. Gubanova.

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Gubanova, D.P., Chkhetiani, O.G., Kuderina, T.M. et al. Long-Term Variability of the Composition of Near-Surface Aerosol over Desertified and Arid Zones in Southern Russia. Atmos Ocean Opt 35, 680–690 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1024856022060148

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