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Emergent Properties of a Climate System: Derivatives of Annual Average Temperature at Weather Stations of the Northern Hemisphere

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The derivatives of the annual average temperature are analyzed based on data from 927 weather stations of the Northern Hemisphere from 1955 to 2016. Changes in the derivatives are considered as manifestations of the emergent property of the holistic climate system. A measure for these manifestations is introduced. It has a form of a functional which includes averaging of positive and negative derivatives and calculation of their correlation coefficients. It is established that the sampling distribution of sums of opposite extreme values of derivatives of the annual average temperature is symmetric and has a larger kurtosis than a normal distribution. In the period under study, the values of the measure are already close to their limit values. Therefore, annual estimation of changes in the measure of emergent properties in the multichannel monitoring system is necessary.

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This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences).

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Correspondence to V. A. Tartakovsky.

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Translated by A. Nikol’skii

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Tartakovsky, V.A., Cheredko, N.N. & Maksimov, V.G. Emergent Properties of a Climate System: Derivatives of Annual Average Temperature at Weather Stations of the Northern Hemisphere. Atmos Ocean Opt 34, 341–346 (2021).

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