We present the results of two-wavelength lidar sensing of the middle atmosphere in the altitude range from 30 to 60 km over Obninsk (55.1° N, 36.6° E) in 2012–2017. Monthly average values of the ratio of aerosol and Rayleigh backscattering coefficients (RARC) at a wavelength of 532 nm, averaged over the layers of 40–50 km and 50–60 km, vary from 0 to 0.02, while the average peak RARC levels in these layers vary from 0.1 to 0.2. Short-term (shorter than 1 month) and long-term (half-year and longer) variations in backscattering are observed. Short-term variations are time concurrent with the occurrence of meteor showers. Long-term enhancements of backscattering in the layer of 50–60 km were observed in 2013 after the Chelyabinsk meteorite fall, as well as in the first half of 2016. In 2014–2015, the monthly average RARC was zero within measurement errors at altitudes from 40 to 60 km. We analyzed the possibility for meteoric aerosol to manifest in backscattering, taking into account the fluxes of meteoric material, gravitational sedimentation of aerosol, and the effect of vertical wind. The flux of visible meteors with masses larger than 10−6 kg and bolides is shown to be insufficient for a long-term enhancement of backscattering in the layer of 50–60 km. It is hypothesized that the enhancement in backscattering is most likely to be due to the occurrence of an enlarged fraction of meteoric smoke particles, formed by ablation of radio meteors and penetrating into the upper stratosphere in the region of the stratospheric polar vortex. In early 2016, this was favored by the formation of an extremely strong stratospheric polar vortex and its shift toward Eurasia.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
A. E. Mikirov and V. A. Smerkalov, The study of scattered radiation of the upper atmosphere of the Earth (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1981) [in Russian].
J. M. C. Plane, “Cosmic dust in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 41, 6507–6518 (2012).
C. G. Bardeen, O. B. Toon, E. J. Jensen, D. R. Marsh, and V. L. Harvey, “Numerical simulations of the three-dimensional distribution of meteoric dust in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D17202 (2008).
M. E. Hervig, L. L. Gordley, L. E. Deaver, D. E. Siskind, M. H. Stevens, J. M. Russell, III, S. M. Bailey, L. Megner, and C. G. Bardeen, “First satellite observations of meteoric smoke in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L18805 (2009).
M. E. Hervig, J. S. A. Brooke, W. Feng, C. G. Bardeen, and J. M. C. Plane, “Constraints on meteoric smoke composition and meteoric influx using SOFIE observations with models,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122 (13), 495–505 (2017).
V. V. Bychkov and V. N. Marichev, “Formation of water aerosols in the upper stratosphere in periods of anomalous winter absorption of radio waves in the ionosphere,” Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 21 (3), 219–226 (2008).
V. V. Bychkov, B. M. Shevtsov, and V. N. Marichev, “Same statistically average characteristics of occurrence of aerosol scattering in the middle atmosphere of Kamchatka,” Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 26 (2), 104–106 (2013).
V. A. Korshunov, D. S. Zubachev, E. O. Merzlyakov, and Ch. Jacobi, “Aerosol parameters of middle atmosphere measured by two-wavelength lidar sensing and their comparison with radio meteor echo measurements,” Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 28 (1), 82–88 (2015).
A. A. Cheremisin, L. V. Granitskii, V. M. Myasnikov, and N. V. Vetchinkin, “Remote optical sensing in the ultraviolet region of the aerosol layer near the stratopause from onboard the astrophysical space station “Astron”,” Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 11 (10), 952–957 (1998).
P. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, and M. L. Chanin, “A critical review of the data base acquired for the long term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by French Rayleigh lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10 (6), 850–867 (1993).
A. R. Klekociuk, P. G. Brown, D. W. Pack, D. O. ReVelle, W. N. Edwards, R. E. Spalding, E. Tagliaferri, B. B. Yoo, and J. Zagari, “Meteoritic dust from the atmospheric disintegration of a large meteoroid,” Nature 436 (7054), 1132–1135 (2005).
V. N. Ivanov, D. S. Zubachev, V. A. Korshunov, V. B. Lapshin, M. S. Ivanov, K. A. Galkin, P. A. Gubko, D. L. Antonov, G. F. Tulinov, A. A. Cheremisin, P. V. Novikov, S. V. Nikolashkin, S. V. Titov, and V. N. Marichev, “Lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol traces of Chelyabinsk meteorite,” Opt. Atmos. Okeana 27 (2), 117–122 (2014).
A. A. Cheremisin, P. V. Novikov, I. S. Shnipov, V. V. Bychkov, and B. M. Shevtsov, “Lidar observations and formation mechanism of the structure of stratospheric and mesospheric aerosol layers over Kamchatka,” Geomag. Aeron. (Engl. transl.) 52 (5), 653–663 (2012).
V. I. Gryazin and S. A. Beresnev, “Influence of vertical wind on stratospheric aerosol transport,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 110, 151–162 (2011).
V. Della Corte, J. Franciscus, M. Rietmeijer, Alessandra A. Rotundi, M. Ferrari, and P. Palumbo, “Meteoric CaO and carbon smoke particles collected in the upper stratosphere from an unanticipated source,” Tellus B: Chem. Phys. Meteorol. 65 (1), 20174 (2013).
G. N. Glazov, Statistical Questions of Lidar Sounding of the Atmosphere (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1987) [in Russian].
A. Behrendt and T. Nakamura, “Calculation of the calibration constant of polarization lidar and its dependency on atmospheric temperature,” Opt. Express 10 (16), 805–817 (2002).
M. Adam, “Notes on temperature-dependent lidar equations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26 (6), 1021–1039 (2009).
F. J. M. Rietmeijer, “Interrelationships among meteoric metals, meteors, interplanetary dust, micrometeorites, and meteorites,” Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 35 (5), 1025–1041 (2000).
P. Spurny, J. Borovicka, H. Mucke, and J. Svoren, “Discovery of a new branch of the Taurid meteoroid stream as a real source of potentially hazardous bodies,” Astron. Astrophys. 605, A68 (2017).
International Meteor Organization. Visual Meteor Database. https://www.imo.net/members/imo_vmdb/ (Cited March 5, 2018).
R. R. Neely, III, J. M. English, O. B. Toon, S. Solomon, M. Mills, and J. P. Thayer, “Implications of extinction due to meteoritic smoke in the upper stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L24808 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL049865
Z. Ceplecha, J. Borovicka, W. Elford, D. Revelle, R. Hawkes, V. Porubcan, and M. Simek, “Meteor phenomena and bodies,” Space Sci. Rev. 84 (3/4), 327–471 (1998).
J. D. Carrillo-Sanchez, J. M. C. Plane, W. Feng, D. Nesvorny, and D. Janches, “On the size and velocity distribution of cosmic dust particles entering the atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42 (15), 6518–6525 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL065149
O. Kalashnikova, M. Horanyi, G. E. Thomas, and O. B. Toon, “Meteoric smoke production in the atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27 (20), 3293–3296 (2000).
P. Brown, R. E. Spalding, D. ReVelle, O. E. Tagliaferri, and S. P. Worden, “The flux of small near-Earth objects colliding with the Earth,” Nature 420, 314–316 (2002).
V. A. Filippov, Candidate’s Dissertation in Mathematics and Physics (Joint-Stock Company “National Center of Space Research and Technology”, Almaty, 2010).
V. I. Gryazin and S. A. Beresnev, “About vertical motion of fractal-like particles in the atmosphere,” Opt. Atmos. Okeana 24 (6), 506–509 (2011).
R. W. Saunders, S. Dhomse, W. S. Tian, M. P. Chipperfield, and J. M. C. Plane, “Interactions of meteoric smoke particles with sulphuric acid in the Earth’ stratosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 4387–4398 (2012).
Jet propulsion laboratory. Fireball and Bolide Data. https://www.cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/fireballs/ (Cited April 10, 2018).
V. Matthias, A. Dornbrack, and G. Stober, “The extraordinary strong and cold polar vortex in the early northern winter 2015/2016,” Geophys. Res Lett. 43 (23), 12.287–12.294 (2016).
F. M. Palmeiro, M. Iza, D. Barriopedro, N. Calvo, and R. Garcia-Herrera, “The complex behavior of El Nino winter 2015–2016,” Geophys. Res Lett. 44 (6), 2902–2910 (2017).
M. P. Nikiforova, A. M. Zvyagintsev, P. N. Vargin, N. S. Ivanova, A. N. Lukyanov, and I. N. Kuznetsova, “Anomalously low total ozone levels over the Northern Urals and Siberia in late January 2016,” Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 30 (3), 255–262 (2017).
E. P. Kropotkina, S. V. Solomonov, S. B. Rozanov, A. N. Ignat’ev, and A. N. Lukin, “Variations in the Ozone concentration in the stratosphere over Moscow due to dynamic processes in the cold period of 2015–2016,” Bull. Lebedev Phys. Inst. 45 (1), 19–23 (2018).
J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vossing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5 (11), 3053–3069 (2005).
L. Megner, D. E. Siskind, M. Rapp, and J. Gumbel, “Global and temporal distribution of meteoric smoke: A two dimensional simulation study,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D03202 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009054
The authors would like to thank T. N. Sykilinde for assistance in the analysis of meteor shower data, as well as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts for providing access to reanalyze data from the ERA-5 project. The paper contains the modified Copernicus Climate Change Service data for 2014–2016.
Translated by O. Bazhenov
About this article
Cite this article
Korshunov, V.A., Merzlyakov, E.G. & Yudakov, A.A. Observations of Meteoric Aerosol in the Upper Stratosphere–Lower Mesosphere by the Method of Two-Wavelength Lidar Sensing. Atmos Ocean Opt 32, 45–54 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1024856019010081
- middle atmosphere
- meteoric aerosol
- meteoric smoke