Elevated Humidity in the Stratosphere as a Gain Factor of Ozone Depletion in the Arctic According to Aura MLS Observations
- 24 Downloads
The analysis of Aura MLS data showed that the temperature in the Arctic stratosphere was much lower than normal throughout the period from January to March 2011 in the altitude range 20–35 km. That led to a considerable spread of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), which were formed most intensely in periods and at altitudes of minimal temperatures (maximal temperature drop below PSC formation threshold). The main ozone losses were observed in March. They were due to a photochemical release of chlorine that avoided deactivation in view of the nitrogen deficit caused by denitrification in the course of frequent dehydration events indicated by oscillations of the altitude of maximal humidity distortion. Elevated humidity in the stratosphere had raised the threshold temperature of formation of PSCs that persisted until late March; this promoted the chlorine activation and, thereby, delayed the chlorine deactivation, resulting in an even higher level of overall ozone losses during March 2011.
Keywordsstratosphere temperature humidity ozone satellite data anomalous variations
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report N 55 (WMO, Genewa, 2014).Google Scholar
- 2.G. L. Manney, M. L. Santee, M. Rex, N. J. Livesey, M. C. Pitts, P. Veefkind, E. R. Nash, I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann, L. Froidevaux, L. R. Poole, M. R. Schoeberl, D. P. Haffner, J. Davies, V. Dorokhov, H. Gernandt, B. Johnson, R. Kivi, E. Kyro, N. Larsen, P. F. Levelt, A. Makshtas, C. T. McElroy, H. Nakajima, M. C. Parrondo, D. W. Tarasick, P. Gathen, K. A. Walker, and N. S. Zinoviev, “Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in 2011,” Nature 478 (7370), 469–475 (2011). doi 10.1038/nature10556ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.S. M. Khaykin, I. Engel, H. Vomel, I. M. Formanyuk, R.Kivi, L. I. Korshunov, M. Kramer, A. D. Lykov, S.Meier, T. Naebert, M. C. Pitts, M. L. Santee, N. Spelten, F. G. Wienhold, V. A. Yushkov, and T. Peter, “Arctic stratospheric dehydration—Part 1: Unprecedented observation of vertical redistribution of water,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 11503–11517 (2013). doi 10.5194/acp-13-11503-2013ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.R. Lindenmaier, K. Strong, R. L. Batchelor, M. P. Chipper-field, W. H. Daffer, J. R. Drummond, T. J. Duck, H. Fast, W. Feng, P. F. Fogal, F. Kolonjari, G. L. Manney, A. Manson, C. Meek, R. L. Mittermeier, G. J. Nott, C. Perro, and K. A. Walker, “Unusually low ozone, HCl, and HNO3 column measurements at Eureka, Canada during winter/spring 2011,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 3821–3835 (2012). doi 10.5194/acp- 12-3821-2012ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.S. P. Sander, J. Abbatt, J. R. Barker, J. B. Burkholder, R. R. Friedl, D. M. Golden, R. E. Huie, C. E. Kolb, M. J. Kurylo, G. K. Moortgat, V. L. Orkin, and P. H. Wine, Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies, JPL Publication No. 10-6 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA, 2011).Google Scholar
- 16.O. E. Bazhenov and V. D. Burlakov, “Anomalous decrease of the level of the total ozone content over Tomsk and northern territory of Russia in March–April 2011,” Opt. Atmos. Okeana 24 (10), 915–919 (2011).Google Scholar
- 17.O. E. Bazhenov, “Assessing the effects of humidity and temperature in the stratosphere on the occurrence of ozone anomaly in spring of 2011 in Arctic and over northern territory of Russia,” Opt. Atmos. Okeana 25 (7), 589–593 (2012).Google Scholar