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Siberian Smoke Haze over European Territory of Russia in July 2016: Atmospheric Pollution and Radiative Effects

Abstract

We have characterized the large-scale smoke pollution of the European territory of Russia (ETR) and adjoining areas in July 2017, caused by long-range transport from forest-fire areas in Siberia, confirmed by calculations of ten-day back trajectories of air mass motion to the ETR urban area, spanning Archangelsk to Rostov-on-Don. The smoke-laden ETR area with an AOD > 0.3 (average value being 0.43 and maximal value being 2.5) on July 25, 2016, covered 5 million km2, and the total smoke mass was ~1.2 million tons. It is shown that the daily average mass concentration of aerosol with particle sizes less than 2.5 μm exceeded the corresponding maximum permissible concentration in the Moscow region during the period from July 24 to 27, 2016. The influence of local sources on aerosol and gas pollution of atmospheric air was estimated. The smoke haze in 2016 was found to be deficient in carbon monoxide as compared to smoke pollution in 2010. It is shown that the thermal and wind stratification in the atmospheric boundary layer markedly influenced the pollution level in the smoke-laden urban atmosphere. Smoke aerosol radiative effect was estimated. The average aerosol radiative forcings at the top and bottom of the atmosphere over ETR on July 25, 2016, were–29 and–53 W/m2, and extreme forcings reached–112 and–215 W/m2, respectively.

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Correspondence to E. G. Semoutnikova.

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Original Russian Text © E.G. Semoutnikova, G.I. Gorchakov, S.A. Sitnov, V.M. Kopeikin, A.V. Karpov, I.A. Gorchakova, T.Ya. Ponomareva, A.A. Isakov, R.A. Gushchin, O.I. Datsenko, G.A. Kurbatov, G.A. Kuznetsov, 2017, published in Optika Atmosfery i Okeana.

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Semoutnikova, E.G., Gorchakov, G.I., Sitnov, S.A. et al. Siberian Smoke Haze over European Territory of Russia in July 2016: Atmospheric Pollution and Radiative Effects. Atmos Ocean Opt 31, 171–180 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1024856018020124

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Keywords

  • large-scale smoke haze
  • long-range transport
  • smoke aerosol
  • aerosol mass concentration
  • carbon monoxide deficit
  • aerosol radiative forcing
  • MODIS
  • AERONET