Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 297–302 | Cite as

The influence of the topographic structure of the sea surface on the error of determining the surface wind by satellite optical scanners

  • A. S. ZapevalovEmail author
  • N. E. Lebedev
  • K. V. Pokazeev
Remote Sensing of Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Underlying Surface


The error in determining the surface wind speed by use of optical scanners is analyzed as due to the variety of physical factors forming the topographical structure of the sea surface. It is shown that this error can be divided into two components. The first component is caused by the stochastic character of the relation between the wind speed and energy of short surface waves; it does not depend on the average wind speed and amounts to 0.2 m/s. The second component is caused by deviations of the slope distribution from the Gaus-sian distribution; it increases with an increase in wind and varies from 0.1 m/s at a wind speed of 1.5 to 0.4 m/s at a wind speed of 15 m/s.


sea surface slopes wind speed measurement error 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    R. K. Moore and W. J. Pierson, “Measuring sea state and estimating surface winds from a polar orbiting satellite,” in Proc. Int. Symp. Electromagnetic Sensing of the Earth from Satellites, Miami Beach, FL, November 22–24, 1966, pp. R1–R28.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. G. Bass, S. Ya. Braude, A. I. Kalmykov, A. V. Men’, I. E. Ostrovskii, V. V. Pustovoitenko, A. D. Rozenberg, and I. M. Fuks, “Radar methods for the study of ocean waves (radiooceanography),” Sov. Phys. Usp. 18 (8), 641–642 (1975). doi 10.1070/PU1975v018n08ABEH004920CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. K. Korotaev, V. V. Pustovoitenko, and L. N. Radai-kina, “Remote sensing of seas and oceans. Develop-ments of satellite oceanology researches,” in Develop-ment of Marine Sciences and Technologies at Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the National Academy of Sci-ences of Ukraine for 75 years (MHI NASU, Sevastopol, 2004), pp. 585–625 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. S. Monin and V. P. Krasitskii, Phenomena on the Ocean Surface (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1985) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    I. N. Ivanova, O. N. Mel’nikova, T. A. Nivina, and K. V. Pokazeev, “Experimental study of the fine struc-ture of the wind field near a rough surface,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 42 (5), 646–652 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. N. Khristoforov, A. S. Zapevalov, and V. E. Smolov, “Amplitude characteristics of high-frequency compo-nents of the wind wave spectrum as functions of the wind speed above a sea,” Morskoi Gidrofiz. Zh., No. 3, 67–77 (1993).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. N. Khristoforov, A. S. Zapevalov, V. E. Smolov, and M. V. Babii, “Correlations between high-frequency wind waves and wind above a sea,” Dokl. AN Ukrainy, Ser. Mat., Estestvoznanie, Tekhn. Nauki, No. 9, 113–117 (1993).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. S. Zapevalov, “Dependence of the statistics of opti-cal flares due to specular reflections from sea surface on the local surface slopes,” Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 13 (12), 1039–1042 (2000).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. N. Khristoforov, A. S. Zapevalov, and V. E. Smolov, “Limiting accuracy of satellite scatterometer measure-ments of the wind speed above the ocean,” Issled. Zemli Kosmosa, No. 2, 57–65 (1987).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. S. Zapevalov, K. V. Pokazeev, and V. V. Pustovoi-tenko, “Limiting accuracy of altimetric measurements of the surface wind speed,” Issled. Zemli Kosmosa, No. 3, 49–54 (2006).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    V. I. Babii, V. A. Gaiskii, A. S. Zapevalov, A. A. Eroshko, and Yu. I. Shapovalov, “Development of positioning measuring complexes,” inDevelopment of Marine Sci-ences and Technologies at Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine for 75 years (MHI NASU, Sevastopol, 2004), pp. 657–661 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. M. Breon and N. Henriot, “Spaceborne observations of ocean glint reflectance and modeling of wave slope distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. C 111 (6), C06005 (2006).ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. Wald and J. M. Monget, “Sea surface winds from sun glitter observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 88 (4), 2547–2555 (1983).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    N. E. Lebedev, “Determination of the surface wind speed and degree of pollution of the sea surface from radiation recorded with satellite optical scanners in a sun glint zone,” in Environmental Safety of Fore-and Shelf Zones and Complex Use of Shelf Sources (MHI NASU, Sevastopol, 2013), Iss. 27, pp. 49–54 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. M. Sayer, G. E. Thomas, and R. G. Grainger, “A sea surface reflectance model for (A)ATSR, and application to aerosol retrievals,” Atmos. Meas. Technol. Discuss. 3 (16), 1023–1098 (2010).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Cox and W. Munk, “Measurements of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 44 (11), 838–850 (1954).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. S. Zapevalov and N. E. Lebedev, “Simulation of sta-tistical characteristics of sea surface during remote optical sensing,” Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 27 (6), 487–492 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. E. Zuev and G. M. Krekov, Optical Models of the Atmo-sphere (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrads, 1986) [in Rus-sian].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. V. Belokhvostikov, M. L. Belov, and V. M. Orlov, “Effect of foam on the ocean–atmosphere brightness field,” Opt. Atmos. 3 (7), 743–747 (1990).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. S. Zapevalov
    • 1
    Email author
  • N. E. Lebedev
    • 1
  • K. V. Pokazeev
    • 2
  1. 1.Marine Hydrophysical InstituteSevastopolRussia
  2. 2.Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations