Skip to main content

Insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activity of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki strains isolated from atmospheric aerosols in the South of Western Siberia


The data on insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains isolated in the microbiological study of height and ground atmospheric aerosol samples taken in the South of Western Siberia are presented. Among 36 isolated bacteria determined as related to the Bt species, 15 strains were relegated to the Bt ssp. kurstaki subspecies by results of intraspecific testing and studied for the presence of antagonistic attributes. In spite of long wandering in extreme conditions in the composition of atmospheric aerosols, including higher atmospheric layer (up to 7 km), the isolated Bt ssp. kurstaki strains keep high (inherent to this subspecies) entomopathogenic activity, possessed the ability to inhibit the multiplication of such pathogenic microorganisms as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella thyphimurium, Shigella sonnei, Candida albicans, and others, and manifested the ability to effectively neutralize the multiplication of the A/chicken/Kurgan/05/2005 (A/H5N1) avian influenza virus and A/Aichi/2/68 (A/H3N2) human virus. Properties of Bt strains isolated from atmospheric aerosols not only verified their well-known resistance to unfavorable factors of the environment but also exhibited the possibility of using them for developing viricides.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    S. D. Pillai, K. W. Widmer, S. E. Dowd, and S. C. Ricke, “Occurrence of airbone bacteria and pathogen indicators during land application of sewage sludge,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62(1), 296–299 (1996).

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    C. I. Davidson, R. F. Phalen, and P. A. Solomon, “Airborne particulate matter and human health: A review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 39(8), 737–749 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    C. M. O’ Gorman and H. T. Fuller, “Prevalence of culturable airborne spores of selected allergenic and pathogenic fungi in outdoor air,” Atmos. Environ. 42(18), 4355–4368 (2008).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Patogens of Insects: Structural and Functional Aspects, Ed. by V. V. Glupov (Kruglyi god, Moscow, 2001) [in Russian].

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    P. Boonserm, P. Davis, D. J. Ellar, and J. Li, “Crystal structure of the mosquito-larvicidal toxin Cry4Ba and its biological implications,” J. Mol. Biol. 348(2), 363–382 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    C. Hofmann, P. Luthy, R. Hutter, and V. Pliska, “Binding of the delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis to brush-border membrane vesicles of the cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae),” Eur. J. Biochem. 173(1), 85–91 (1988).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    A. Bravo, S. Gill, and M. Soberon, “Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control,” Toxicon 49(4), 423–435 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    L. K. Kamenek, E. G. Klimentova, and A. A. Tyul’pineva, “Action of delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki on some aerobic phytopathogenic bacteria,” (Uch. zap. UlGU, Ul’yanovsk, 2000), Part 1(2) [in Russian].

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    T. G. Yudina, I. A. Zalunin, L. A. Kirsanova, Dan’yan Go, N. V. Bulushova, and A. I. Netrusov, “Comparison of antimicrobic action Cry and Cyt of Bacillus thuringiensis proteins and their fragments,” Byull. MOIP, Biolog. 114 (2009).

  10. 10.

    V. P. Vasil’ev, Crop Pests and Insects. Vol. 3. Techniques and Means for Fighting with Insects, Systems of Measures on Plant protection, Ed. By V. P. Vasil’ev and V. P. Omeluta (Urozhai, Kiev, 1989) [in Russian].

  11. 11.

    A. Bravo, S. Likitvivatanavong, S. S. Gill, and M. Soberon, “Bacillus thuringiensis: A story of a successful bioinsecticide,” Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 41(7), 423–431 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    P. H. Damgaard, H. D. Larsen, B. M. Hansen, J. Bresciani, and K. Jorgensen, “Enterotoxin-producing strains of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from food,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 23(3), 146–150 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    I. S. Andreeva, B. D. Belan, A. I. Borodulin, G. A. Buryak, Yu. V. Marchenko, S. E. Ol’kin, M. V. Panchenko, V. A. Petrishchenko, O. V. P’yankov, I. K. Reznikova, A. S. Safatov, A. N. Sergeev, and E. V. Stepanova, “Variability of biogenic component of atmospheric aerosol over forested areas of Western Siberia,” Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 13(6–7), 592–596 (2000).

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    I. S. Andreeva, A. I. Borodulin, G. A. Buryak, V. A. Zhukov, S. V. Zykov, Yu. V. Marchenko, V. V. Marchenko, S. E. Ol’kin, V. A. Petrishchenko, O. V. P’yankov, I. K. Reznikova, V. E. Repin, A. S. Safatov, A. N. Sergeev, V. F. Raputa, V. V. Penenko, E. A. Tsvetova, M. Yu. Arshinov, B. D. Belan, M. V. Panchenko, A. N. Ankilov, A. M. Baklanov, A. L. Vlasenko, K. P. Kutsenogii, V. I. Makarov, and T. V. Churkina, “Biogenic component of atmospheric aerosol in the south of West Siberia,” Chem. Sustain. Develop., No. 5, 523–527 (2002).

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    A. Safatov, G. Buryak, I. Andreeva, S. Olkin, I. Reznikova, A. Sergeev, B. Belan, M. Panchenko, D. Simonenkov, and G. Tolmachev, “Altitude profiles of biogenic components of atmospheric aerosols in southwestern Siberia,” Chem. Eng. Transact. 16, 225–232 (2008).

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    A. N. Sergeev, A. S. Safatov, A. P. Agafonov, I. S. Andreeva, M. Yu. Arshinov, B. D. Belan, G. A. Buryak, V. M. Generalov, Yu. R. Zakharova, N. A. Lapteva, S. E. Ol’kin, M. V. Panchenko, V. V. Parfenova, I.K. Reznikova, D. V. Simonenkov, T. V. Teplyakova, and V. A. Ternovoi, “The comparison of the presence of chemical and biological markers in the surface microlayer of water areas of health resort zones at Lake Baikal and aerosol of this region,” Opt. Atmosf. Okeana 22(6), 585–594 (2009).

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    A. S. Safatov, G. A. Buryak, S. E. Ol’kin, I. K. Reznikova, Yu. V. Marchenko, B. M. Desyatkov, N. A. Lapteva, I. S. Andreeva, A. S. Kozlov, S. B. Malyshkin, I. A. Sutorikhin, V. I. Bukatyi, S. A. Litvinenko, B. S. Smolyakov, and M. P. Shinkorenko, “Results of the complex ecological study of water and near-shore air of bitter-salty lakes of Altai region in summer of 2011,” Opt. Atmosf. Okeana 25(6), 550–558 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Ed. by F. Gerhard, R. G. E. Murray, W. A. Wood, and N. Krieg (American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC., 1981), vol. 3.

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Ed. by J. G. Holt (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, London, 1986), vol. 1–2.

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    P. Fredericq, Actions Antibiotiques Reciproques chez les Enterobacteriaceae (Duculot, 1948).

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    I. S. Andreeva, N. A. Mazurkova, O. S. Mokrushina, L. I. Puchkova, and A. I. Zakabunin, “Bacillus thuringiensis strains secreting metabolites inhibit the replication of human influenza virus A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) and avian influenza virus A/chicken/Kurgan/05/2005,” Mezhdunar. Nauch.-Issled. Zh., No. 7-1, 70–71 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    V. A. Sakanyan, G. N. Selivanova, N. O. Bukanov, M. A. Krupenko, and S. I. Alikhanyan, “Propagation, homology, and cloning of cryptic plasmids Bacillus thuringiensis,” Genetika 18(2), 181–190 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    F. P. Galushka and P. P. Azizbekyan, “Study of plasmids of different strains of Bacillus thuringiensis,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 236(5), 1233–1235 (1977).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to I. S. Andreeva.

Additional information

Original Russian Text © I.S. Andreeva, A.S. Safatov, O.S. Mokrushina, G.A. Buryak, L.I. Puchkova, N.A. Mazurkova, L.I. Burtseva, G.V. Kalmykova, 2014, published in Optika Atmosfery i Okeana.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Andreeva, I.S., Safatov, A.S., Mokrushina, O.S. et al. Insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activity of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki strains isolated from atmospheric aerosols in the South of Western Siberia. Atmos Ocean Opt 27, 479–486 (2014).

Download citation


  • atmospheric aerosols
  • Bacillus thuringiensis
  • insecticidal
  • antimicrobial
  • and antiviral activity