Russian Journal of Genetics

, Volume 54, Issue 5, pp 548–553 | Cite as

Population Genetic Structure of Wild Boars in Poland

  • K. Tajchman
  • L. Drozd
  • M. Karpiński
  • P. Czyżowski
  • M. Goleman
Animal Genetics
  • 4 Downloads

Abstract

The analysis involved wild boars from the Lublin region, Warmia and Mazury, and Wielkopolska. The study material comprised muscle tissue samples collected from 100 wild boars. We analysed loci S0008, SW1129, SW986, SW1465, SW1492, SW1514, SW2532, SW461, SW841, SW2021, and SW2496 [1, 2]. The largest number of specific alleles, i.e. in six loci, was observed in wild boars from Warmia and Mazury; in turn, there were only two alleles in the group of wild boars from Lublin, and no alleles in individuals from Wielkopolska. The average value of the observed heterozygosity was Ho = 0.51, and the average value of expected heterozygosity was He = 0.63. PIC was another analysed indicator, with its lowest value determined for wild boars from the Wielkopolska region (0.53), and the highest value (0.62) was found for the animals from Warmia and Mazury. In the study population of wild boars, we also determined the FST index, which was 0.073, and Nm had a value greater than 3 (3.15); therefore, it can be concluded that the number of migrants per generation was 3. Both coefficients confirm the possibility of gene transfer and reproduction within and between the analysed populations of the wild boars. In our study, we observed a greater genetic distance between the wild boar populations from Wielkopolska and the Lublin and Warmia and Mazury regions in spite of the smaller geographical distance of these lands. This may be caused the less extensive network of ecological corridors as well as the occurrence of anthropogenic barriers e.g. large urban centres, an extensive network of roads, and the high volume of traffic in the direction of the capital.

Keywords

Sus scrofa migration microsatellites polymorphism 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ferreira, E., Souto, L., Soares, A.M.V.M., and Fonseca, C., Genetic structure of the wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) population in Portugal, Wildl. Biol. Pract., 2006, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 17–25.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vernesi, C., Crestanello, B., Pecchioli, E., et al., The genetic impact of demographic decline and reintroduction in wild boar (Sus scrofa): a microsatellite analysis, Mol. Ecol., 2003, vol. 12, pp. 585–595.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Choi, S.K., Lee, J.E., Kim, Y., et al., Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses, BMC Genet., 2014, vol. 15, p. 85.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kamieniarz, R. and Panek, M., Wild Game in Poland at the Turn of the Century OHZ PZŁ, Czepiń, 2008.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Okarma, H. and Tomek, A., Hunting, Krakow: Education and Scientific H2O, 2008.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Szczepański, W., Janiszewski, P. and Kolasa, S., Biometric characteristic of the wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from north-eastern Poland, Baltic For., 2003, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 83–88.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oliver, W.L.R., Brisbin, J., and Takahami, S., The Euroasian wild pig (Sus scrofa), Oliver, W.L.R., Ed., A Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Pig, Pecaries and Hippos, Gland: International Union for the Conservation of Nature, 1993, pp. 112—121.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Spitz, F., General model of spatial and social organization of the wild boar (Sus scrofa), Ongules/Ungulates, Spitz, F., Janeau, G., and Aulangier, S., Eds., Toulouse: SFEPM-IRGM, 1992, vol. 91, pp. 385–389.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boitaini, L., Mattei, L., Nonis, D., and Corsi, F., Spatial and activity patterns of wild boar in Tuscany, J. Mammal., 1994, vol. 75, pp. 600–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Soideikat, G. and Pohlmeyer, K., Escape movements of family groups of wild boar Sus scrofa influenced by drive hunts in Lower Saxony, Germany. Wild. Biol., 2003, vol. 9, suppl. 1, pp. 43–49.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Raymond, M. and Rousset, F., GENEPOP (3.4): population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism, J. Hered., 1995, vol. 86, pp. 248–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Excoffier, L., Laval, G., and Schneider, S., Arlequin ver. 3.0: an integrated software package for population genetics data analysis, Evol. Bioinf. Online, 2005, vol. 1, pp. 47–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rodriganez, J., Barragan, C., Aloes, E., et al., Genetic diversity and allelic richness in Spanish wild and domestic pig population estimated from microsatellite markers, Span. J. Agric. Res., 2008, vol. 6, special issue, pp. 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shenglin, Y., Genetic diversity of Tai indigenous pigs, wild boars and Chinese Qianbei black pigs based on microsatellite DNA and sequence polymorphism of mitochondria DNA cytochrome b gene, Doctor Thesis, 2007.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Scandura, M., Iacolina, L., Crestanello, B., et al., Ancient vs. recent processes as factors shaping the genetic variation of the European wild boar: are the effects of the last glaciation still detectable?, Mol. Ecol., 2008, vol. 17, pp. 1745–1762.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vielickovic, N., Djan, M., Obreht, D., and Vapa, Lj., Population genetic structure of wild boars in the West Balkan region, Russ. J. Genet., 2012, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 859–863. doi 10.1134/S1022795412080078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Günther, B. and Csaikl, H.F., Genetic variability and differentiation in wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus L.) comparison of isolated populations, J. Mamm., 1987, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 119–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim, T.H., Kim, K.S., Choi, B.H., et al., Genetic structure of pig breeds from Korea and China using microsatellite loci analysis, Am. Soc. Anim. Sci., 2005, vol. 83, pp. 2255–2263.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Spencer, P.B.S., Hampton, J., Lapidge S.J., et al., An assessment of the genetic diversity and structure within and among populations of wild pig (Sus scrofa) from Australia and Papua New Guinea, J. Genet., 2006, vol. 85, no. 1.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pilot, M., The Use of Molecular Methods in Studies of Ecological, Warsaw: Museum and Institute of Zoology PAN, 2005.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ferreira, E., Souto, L., Soares, A.M.V.M., and Fonseca, C., Genetic structure of the wild boar population in Portugal: evidence of a recent bottleneck, Mamm. Biol., 2009, vol. 74, pp. 274–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Avise, J.C., Molecular Markers, Natural History, and Evolution, Warsaw: WUW, 2008.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Slatkin, M., Rare alleles as indicators of gene flow, Evolution, 1985, vol. 39, pp. 53–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Perzanowska, J., Makomaska-Juchiewicz, M., Cierlik, G., et al., Ecological Corridors in Malopolska, Institute of Environmental Sciences, 2005.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fang, M. and Andersson, L., Mitochondrial diversity in European and Chinese pigs in consistent with population expansions that occurred prior to domestication, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, 2006, vol. 273, pp, 1803–1810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Tajchman
    • 1
  • L. Drozd
    • 1
  • M. Karpiński
    • 1
  • P. Czyżowski
    • 1
  • M. Goleman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ethology and Animal Welfare University of Life Sciences in LublinLublinPoland

Personalised recommendations