Russian Journal of Genetics

, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 388–399 | Cite as

Is there a Finno-Ugric component in the gene pool of Russians from Yaroslavl oblast? Evidence from Y-chromosome

  • M. I. Chukhryaeva
  • E. S. Pavlova
  • V. V. Napolskich
  • E. V. Garin
  • A. S. Klopov
  • S. N. Temnyatkin
  • V. V. Zaporozhchenko
  • A. G. Romanov
  • A. T. Agdzhoyan
  • O. M. Utevska
  • N. V. Markina
  • S. M. Koshel
  • O. P. Balanovsky
  • E. V. BalanovskaEmail author
Human Genetics


The Upper Volga region was an area of contacts of Finno-Ugric, Slavic, and Scandinavian speaking populations in the 8th–10th centuries AD. However, their role in the formation of the contemporary gene pool of the Russian population of the region is largely unknown. To answer this question, we studied four populations of Yaroslavl oblast (N = 132) by a wide panel of STR and SNP markers of the Y-chromosome. Two of the studied populations appear to be genetically similar: the indigenous Russian population of Yaroslavl oblast and population of Katskari are characterized by the same major haplogroup, R-M198 (xM458). Haplogroup R-M458 composes more than half of Sitskari’s gene pool. The major haplogroup in the gene pool of the population of the ancient town of Mologa is N-M178. Subtyping N-M178 by newest “genomeera” Y-SNP markers showed different pathways of entering this haplogroup into the gene pools of Yaroslavl Volga region populations. The majority of Russian populations have subvariant N3a3-CTS10760; the regular sample of Yaroslavl oblast is equally represented by subvariants N3a3-CTS10760 and N3a4-Z1936, while subvariant N3a4-Z1936 predominates in the gene pool of population of Mologa. This N3a4-Z1936 haplogroup is common among the population of the north of Eastern Europe and the Volga-Ural region. The obtained results indicate preservation of the Finno-Ugric component in the gene pool of population of Mologa and a contribution of Slavic colonization in the formation of the gene pool of the Yaroslavl Volga region populations and make it possible to hypothesize the genetic contribution of the “downstream” (Rostov- Suzdal) rather than “upstream” (Novgorod) Slavic migration wave.


gene pool genogeography Y-chromosome SNP STR Russians Yaroslavl oblast Finno-Ugric peoples Merya Sitskari Katskari Mologzhane 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Al’kvist, A., Substrate toponymy of Yaroslavl Povolzhye, in Ocherki istoricheskoi geografii: Severo-Zapad Rossii: slavyane i finny (Essays on Historical Geography: North-West Russia: Slavs and Finns), Gerd, A.S. and Lebedev, G.S., Eds., St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg Gos. Univ., 2001, pp. 436–467.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Matveev, A.K., Substratnaya toponimiya Russkogo Severa (Substrate Toponymy of the Russian North), Yekaterinburg: Ural. Univ., 2007, part3.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Matveev, A.K., Substratnaya toponimiya Russkogo Severa (Substrate Toponymy of the Russian North), part 4: Toponimiya meryanskogo tipa (Merya Toponymy), Yekaterinburg: Ural. Univ., 2015.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Khelimskii, E.A., The northwestern group of the Finno-Ugric languages and its substrate heritage, Vopr. Onomastiki, 2006, no. 3, pp. 38–51.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smirnov, O.V., The “Mari” hypothesis in the study of the toponymy of the Oka and Unzha rivers and the western borders of the old Mari toponymic area, Vopr. Onomastiki, 2015, no. 2(19), pp. 7–61.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zakharov, S.D., Beloozero, in Rus’ v IX–X vekakh: arkheologicheskaya panorama (Russia in 9th–10th Centuries: the Archaeological Panorama), Makarov, N.A., Ed., Moscow: Drevnosti Severa, 2012, pp. 212–241.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nedoshivina, N.G. and Zozulya, S.S., Tumuluses of Yaroslavl Povolzhye, in Rus’ v IX–X vekakh: arkheologicheskaya panorama (Russia in 9th–10th Centuries: the Archaeological Panorama), Makarov, N.A., Ed., Moscow: Drevnosti Severa, 2012, pp. 179–193.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tret'yakov, P.N., Finno-ugry, balty i slavyane na Dnepre i Volge (Finno-Ugrians, Balts and Slavs at the Dnieper and Volga), Moscow: Nauka, 1966.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Makarov, N.A., Kolonizatsiya severnykh okrain Drevnei Rusi v XI–XIII vv. (Colonization of the Northern Outskirts of the Ancient Russia from the 11th to the 13th Centuries), Moscow: Skriptorium, 1997.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pliss, L., Timša, L., Rootsi, S., et al., Y-chromosomal lineages of Latvians in the context of the genetic Variation of the Eastern-Baltic region, Ann. Hum. Genet., 2015, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 418–430. doi 10.1111/ahg.12130CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Balanovsky, O., Zhabagin, M., Agdzhoyan, A., et al., Deep phylogenetic analysis of haplogroup G1 provides estimates of SNP and STR mutation rates on the human Y-chromosome and reveals migrations of Iranic speakers, PLoS One, 2015, vol. 10, no. 4:e0122968. doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0122968CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zalloua, P.A., Xue, Y., Khalife, J., et al., Y-chromosomal diversity in Lebanon is structured by recent historical events, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2008, vol. 82, pp. 873–882. doi 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.01.020CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zalloua, P.A., Platt, D.E., El Sibai, M., et al., Identifying genetic traces of historical expansions: Phoenician footprints in the Mediterranean, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2008, vol. 83, pp. 633–642. doi 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.10.012CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Balanovskaya, E.V., Pezhemskii, D.V., Romanov, A.G., et al., Gene pool of the Russian North: Slaves? Finns? Paleoeuropeans?, Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Ser. 23: Anthropol., 2011, no. 3, pp. 27–58.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Balaganskaya, O.A., Balanovskaya, E.V., Lavryashina, M.B., et al., Y-chromosomal polymorphism in Turkic-speaking populations from Altai–Sayan, Tien-Shan and Pamir mountains in context of the interaction between western and eastern Eurasian gene pools, Med. Genet., 2011, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 12–22.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dibirova, Kh.D., Balanovskaya, E.V., Kuznetsova, M.A., et al., Genetic relief of the Caucasus: four linguistic and geographic regions according to data on Y chromosome polymorphism, Med. Genet., 2010, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 9–18.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Balanovsky, O., Rootsi, S., Pshenichnov, A., et al., Two sources of the Russian patrilineal heritage in their Eurasian context, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2008, vol. 82, pp. 236–250. doi 10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.09.019CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Roewer, L., Willuweit, S., Krüger, C., et al., Analysis of Y chromosome STR haplotypes in the European part of Russia reveals high diversities but non-significant genetic distances between populations, Int. J. Legal Med., 2008, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 219–223. doi 10.1007/s00414-007-0222-2CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Malyarchuk, B.A. and Derenko, M.V., Gene pool structure of Russian populations from the European part of Russia inferred from the data on Y chromosome haplogroups distribution, Russ. J. Genet., 2008, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 187–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rootsi, S., Zhivotovsky, L.A., Baldovic, M., et al., A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe, Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2007, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 204–211.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ilumäe, A.-M., Reidla, M., Chukhryaeva, M., et al., Human Y-chromosomal haplogroup N: a non-trivial time-resolved phylogeography that cuts across language families, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2016, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 163–173. doi 10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.05.025CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dubov, I.V., Severo-vostochnaya Rus’ v epokhu rannego srednevekov’ya (istoriko-arkheologicheskie ocherki) (Northeast Russia in the Early Middle Ages (Historical and Archaeological Essays)), Leningrad: Leningrad Univ., 1982.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kritskii, P.A., Sitskari, in Yaroslavskii krai, Entsiklopedicheskii slovar’ Brokgauza i Efrona (Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary), Selivanov, A.M., Ed., Yaroslavl, 1996.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Baranova, V.V., Drawing up a dictionary and the birth of a new language, Antropologicheskii forum (Anthropological Forum) (Proc. Conf.), 2014, no. 21, pp. 27–36.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Goryunova, E.I., The Merya tumulus at the Rybinsk Sea, in Kratkie Soobshcheniya Instituta istorii material’noi kul’tury (Short Communications of the Institute of History of Material Culture), 1954, issue 54, pp. 160–161.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Karlsson, A.O., Wallerström, T., Götherström, A., et al., Y-chromosome diversity in Sweden–a long-time perspective, Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2006, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 963–970.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kushniarevich, A., Sivitskaya, L., Danilenko, N., et al., Uniparental genetic heritage of Belarusians: encounter of rare middle eastern matrilineages with a central European mitochondrial DNA pool, PLoS One, 2013, vol. 8, no. 6. e66499. doi 10.1371/journal. pone.0066499CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mirabal, S., Regueiro, M., Cadenas, A.M., et al., Y-chromosome distribution within the geo-linguistic landscape of northwestern Russia, Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2009, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1260–1273.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Myres, N.M., Rootsi, S., Lin, A.A., et al., A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe, Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2011, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 95–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pimenoff, V.N., Comas, D., Palo, J.U., et al., Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers, Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2008, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1254–1264. doi 10.1038/ejhg.2008.101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Semino, O., Passarino, G., Oefner, P.J., et al., The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective, Science, 2000, vol. 290, no. 5494, pp. 1155–1159. doi 10.1126/science.290.5494.1155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tambets, K., Rootsi, S., Kivisild, T., et al., The western and eastern roots of the Saami–the story of genetic “outliers” told by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2004, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 661–682. doi 10.1086/383203CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wells, R.S., Yuldasheva, N., Ruzibakiev, R., et al., The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2001, vol. 98, no. 18, pp. 10244–10249. doi 10.1073/pnas.171305098CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rosser, Z.H., Zerjal, T., Hurles, M.E., et al., Y chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2000, vol. 67, pp. 1526–1543.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rootsi, S., Magri, C., Kivisild, T., et al., Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup I reveals distinct domains of prehistoric gene flow in Europe, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2004, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 128–137.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rootsi, S., Myres, N.M., Lin, A.A., et al., Distinguishing the co-ancestries of haplogroup G Y-chromosomes in the populations of Europe and the Caucasus, Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2012, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1275–1282.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cruciani, F., La Fratta, R., Trombetta, B., et al., Tracing past human male movements in northern/eastern Africa and western Eurasia: new clues from Y-chromosomal haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12, Mol. Biol. Evol., 2007, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1300–1311. doi 10.1093/molbev/msm049CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Underhill, P.A., Myres, N.M., Rootsi, S., et al., New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I, Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory, Mellars, P., Boyle, K., Bar-Yosef, O., and Stringer, C., Eds., Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2007, pp. 33–42.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Underhill, P., Myres, N., Rootsi, S., et al., Separating the post-glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a, Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2010, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 479–484. doi 10.1038/ejhg.2009.194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lappalainen, T., Koivumäki, S., Salmela, E., et al., Regional differences among the Finns: a Y-chromosomal perspective, Gene, 2006, vol. 376, no. 2, pp. 207–215.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lappalainen, T., Laitinen, V., Salmela, E., et al., Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region, Ann. Hum. Genet., 2008, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 337–348.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Heinrich, M., Braun, T., Sänger, T., et al., Reducedvolume and low-volume typing of Y-chromosomal SNPs to obtain Finnish Y-chromosomal compound haplotypes, Int. J. Legal. Med., 2009, vol. 123, no. 5, pp. 413–418. doi 10.1007/s00414-009-0358-3CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 62001, Stat Soft. Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chukhryaeva, M.I., Ivanov, I.O., Frolova, S.A., et al., The haplomatch program for comparing Y-chromosome STR-haplotypes and its application to the analysis of the origin of Don Cossacks, Russ. J. Genet., 2016, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 521–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Balanovsky, O., Dibirova, K., Dybo, A., et al., Parallel evolution of genes and languages in the Caucasus region, Mol. Biol. Evol., 2011, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 2905–2920. doi 10.1093/molbev/msr126CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Haak, W., Balanovsky, O., Sanchez, J.J., et al., Ancient DNA from European early Neolithic farmers reveals their near eastern affinities, PLoS Biol., 2010, vol. 8, no. 11. doi 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000536Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Koshel’, S.M., Geoinformation technologies in the gene geography, in Sovremennaya geograficheskaya kartografiya (Modern Geographic Cartography), Lur’e, I.K. and Kravtsova, V.I., Eds., Moscow: Data+, 2012, pp. 158–166.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Balanovskii, O.P., Genofond Evropy (Gene Pool of Europe), Moscow: KMK, 2015.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Napol’skikh, V.V., Ocherki po etnicheskoi istorii (Essays on the Ethnic History), Kazan, 2015, pp. 49–53, 141–162.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kushniarevich, A., Utevska, O., Chuhryaeva, M., et al., Genetic heritage of the Balto-Slavic speaking populations: a synthesis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data, PLoS One, 2015, vol. 10, no. 9. doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0135820Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. I. Chukhryaeva
    • 1
    • 2
  • E. S. Pavlova
    • 3
  • V. V. Napolskich
    • 4
  • E. V. Garin
    • 5
  • A. S. Klopov
    • 6
  • S. N. Temnyatkin
    • 7
  • V. V. Zaporozhchenko
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. G. Romanov
    • 1
  • A. T. Agdzhoyan
    • 1
    • 2
  • O. M. Utevska
    • 8
  • N. V. Markina
    • 2
  • S. M. Koshel
    • 9
  • O. P. Balanovsky
    • 1
    • 2
  • E. V. Balanovska
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Centre for Medical GeneticsMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Vavilov Institute of General GeneticsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Demidov Yaroslavl State UniversityYaroslavlRussia
  4. 4.Institute of Social CommunicationsUdmurt State UniversityIzhevskRussia
  5. 5.Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland WatersRussian Academy of SciencesBorokRussia
  6. 6.Mologa Territory Museum (Rybinsk Museum Reserve)RybinskRussia
  7. 7.Ethnographic Museum of KatskariMartynovo, Yaroslavl oblastRussia
  8. 8.Karazin Kharkiv National UniversityKharkivUkraine
  9. 9.Department of Cartography and GeoinformaticsMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations