The macrohaplogroup U structure in Russians

Abstract

The structure and diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) macrohaplogroup U lineages in Russians from Eastern Europe are studied on the basis of analysis of variation of nucleotide sequences of complete mitochondrial genomes. In total, 132 mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups U1, U2e, U3, U4, U5, U7, U8a, and K are characterized. Results of phylogeographic analysis show that the mitochondrial gene pool of Russians contains mtDNA haplotypes belonging to subhaplogroups that are characteristic only of Russians and other Eastern Slavs (13.7%), Slavs in general (11.4%), Slavs and Germans (17.4%), and Slavs, Germans, and Baltic Finns (9.8%). Results of molecular dating show that ages of mtDNA subhaplogroups to which Russian mtDNA haplotypes belong vary in a wide range, from 600 to 17000 years. However, molecular dating results for Slavic and Slavic-Germanic mtDNA subhaplogroups demonstrate that their formation mainly occurred in the Bronze and Iron Ages (1000–5000 years ago). Only some instances (for subhaplogroups U5b1a1 and U5b1e1a) are characterized by a good agreement between molecular dating results and the chronology of Slavic ethnic history based on historical and archaeological data.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Fu, Q., Mittnik, A., Johnson, P.L., et al., A revised timescale for human evolution based on ancient mitochondrial genomes, Curr. Biol., 2013, vol. 23, pp. 553–559.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Posth, C., Renaud, G., Mittnik, A., et al., Pleistocene mitochondrial genomes suggest a single major dispersal of non-Africans and a Late Glacial population turnover in Europe, Curr. Biol., 2016, vol. 26, pp. 827–833.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Krause, J., Briggs, A.W., Kircher, M., et al., A complete mtDNA genome of an early modern human from Kostenki, Russia, Curr. Biol., 2010, vol. 20, pp. 231–236.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Bollongino, R., Nehlich, O., Richards, M.P., et al., 2000 years of parallel societies in Stone Age Central Europe, Science, 2013, vol. 342, pp. 479–481.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Haak, W., Lazarids, I., Patterson, N., et al., Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe, Nature, 2015, vol. 522, pp. 207–211.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Allentoft, M.E., Sikora, M., Sjogren, K.G., et al., Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia, Nature, 2015, vol. 522, pp. 167–172.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Malmström, H., Linderholm, A., Skoglund, P., et al., Ancient mitochondrial DNA from the northern fringe of the Neolithic farming expansion in Europe sheds light on the dispersion process, Philos. Trans. R. Soc., B, 2015, vol. 370, p. 20130373.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Malyarchuk, B.A., Grzybowski, T., Derenko, M., et al., Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny in Eastern and Western Slavs, Mol. Biol. Evol., 2008, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1651–1658.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Malyarchuk, B., Derenko, M., Grzybowski, T., et al., The peopling of Europe from the mitochondrial haplogroup U5 perspective, PLoS One, 2010, vol. 5. e10285

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Derenko, M., Malyarchuk, B., Denisova, G., et al., Western Eurasian ancestry in modern Siberians based on mitogenomic data, BMC Evol. Biol., 2014, vol. 14, p. 217.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Bandelt, H.J., Forster, P., and Röhl, A., Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies, Mol. Biol. Evol., 1999, vol. 16, pp. 37–48.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Forster, P., Harding, R., Torroni, A., and Bandelt, H.J., Origin and evolution of Native American mtDNA variation: a reappraisal, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 1996, vol. 59, pp. 935–945.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Soares, P., Ermini, L., Thomson, N., et al., Correcting for purifying selection: an improved human mitochondrial molecular clock, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2009, vol. 84, pp. 740–759.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Perego, U.A., Achilli, A., Angerhofer, N., et al., Distinctive Paleo-Indian migration routes from Beringia marked by two rare mtDNA haplogroups, Curr. Biol., 2009, vol. 19, pp. 1–8.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Davidovic, S., Malyarchuk, B., Aleksic, J., et al., Mitochondrial DNA perspective of Serbian genetic diversity, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 2015, vol. 156, pp. 449–465.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Stoljarova, M., King, J.L., Takahashi, M., et al., Whole mitochondrial genome genetic diversity in an Estonian population sample, Int. J. Leg. Med., 2016, vol. 130, pp. 67–71.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Sedov, V.V., Proiskhozhdenie i rannyaya istoriya slavyan (The Origin and Early History of the Slavs), Moscow: Nauka, 1979.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Gray, R.D. and Atkinson, Q.D., Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo- European origin, Nature, 2003, vol. 426, pp. 435–439.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Gimbutas, M., The Prehistory of Eastern Europe: part 1: Mesolithic, Neolithic and Copper Age Cultures in Russia and the Baltic Area, Cambridge: The Peabody Museum, 1956.

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Anthony, D.W., The Horse, The Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, New Jersey: Princeton Univ. Press, 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Malyarchuk, B., Derenko, M., Grzybowski, T., et al., Differentiation of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes in Russian populations, Hum. Biol., 2004, vol. 76, pp. 877–900.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Balanovskaya, E.V., Pezhemskii, D.V., Romanov, A.G., et al., Gene pool of the Russian North: Slavs? Finns? Paleoeuropeans?, Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Ser. 23: Anthropol., 2011, no. 3, pp. 27–58.

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Morozova, I., Evsyukov, A., Kon’kov, A., et al., Russian ethnic history inferred from mitochondrial DNA diversity, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 2012, vol. 147, pp. 341–351.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Soltyszewski, I., Plocienniczak, A., Fabricius, H.A., et al., Analysis of forensically-used autosomal short tandem repeat markers in Polish and neighboring populations, Forensic Sci. Int.: Genet., 2008, vol. 2, pp. 205–211.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to B. A. Malyarchuk.

Additional information

Original Russian Text © B.A. Malyarchuk, M.V. Derenko, A.N. Litvinov, 2017, published in Genetika, 2017, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp. 488–494.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Malyarchuk, B.A., Derenko, M.V. & Litvinov, A.N. The macrohaplogroup U structure in Russians. Russ J Genet 53, 498–503 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1022795417020053

Download citation

Keywords

  • mitochondrial DNA
  • molecular phylogeography
  • Russian gene pool