Russian Journal of Genetics

, Volume 53, Issue 4, pp 498–503 | Cite as

The macrohaplogroup U structure in Russians

  • B. A. MalyarchukEmail author
  • M. V. Derenko
  • A. N. Litvinov
Human Genetics


The structure and diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) macrohaplogroup U lineages in Russians from Eastern Europe are studied on the basis of analysis of variation of nucleotide sequences of complete mitochondrial genomes. In total, 132 mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups U1, U2e, U3, U4, U5, U7, U8a, and K are characterized. Results of phylogeographic analysis show that the mitochondrial gene pool of Russians contains mtDNA haplotypes belonging to subhaplogroups that are characteristic only of Russians and other Eastern Slavs (13.7%), Slavs in general (11.4%), Slavs and Germans (17.4%), and Slavs, Germans, and Baltic Finns (9.8%). Results of molecular dating show that ages of mtDNA subhaplogroups to which Russian mtDNA haplotypes belong vary in a wide range, from 600 to 17000 years. However, molecular dating results for Slavic and Slavic-Germanic mtDNA subhaplogroups demonstrate that their formation mainly occurred in the Bronze and Iron Ages (1000–5000 years ago). Only some instances (for subhaplogroups U5b1a1 and U5b1e1a) are characterized by a good agreement between molecular dating results and the chronology of Slavic ethnic history based on historical and archaeological data.


mitochondrial DNA molecular phylogeography Russian gene pool 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Fu, Q., Mittnik, A., Johnson, P.L., et al., A revised timescale for human evolution based on ancient mitochondrial genomes, Curr. Biol., 2013, vol. 23, pp. 553–559.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Posth, C., Renaud, G., Mittnik, A., et al., Pleistocene mitochondrial genomes suggest a single major dispersal of non-Africans and a Late Glacial population turnover in Europe, Curr. Biol., 2016, vol. 26, pp. 827–833.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Krause, J., Briggs, A.W., Kircher, M., et al., A complete mtDNA genome of an early modern human from Kostenki, Russia, Curr. Biol., 2010, vol. 20, pp. 231–236.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bollongino, R., Nehlich, O., Richards, M.P., et al., 2000 years of parallel societies in Stone Age Central Europe, Science, 2013, vol. 342, pp. 479–481.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Haak, W., Lazarids, I., Patterson, N., et al., Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe, Nature, 2015, vol. 522, pp. 207–211.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Allentoft, M.E., Sikora, M., Sjogren, K.G., et al., Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia, Nature, 2015, vol. 522, pp. 167–172.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Malmström, H., Linderholm, A., Skoglund, P., et al., Ancient mitochondrial DNA from the northern fringe of the Neolithic farming expansion in Europe sheds light on the dispersion process, Philos. Trans. R. Soc., B, 2015, vol. 370, p. 20130373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Malyarchuk, B.A., Grzybowski, T., Derenko, M., et al., Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny in Eastern and Western Slavs, Mol. Biol. Evol., 2008, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1651–1658.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Malyarchuk, B., Derenko, M., Grzybowski, T., et al., The peopling of Europe from the mitochondrial haplogroup U5 perspective, PLoS One, 2010, vol. 5. e10285CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Derenko, M., Malyarchuk, B., Denisova, G., et al., Western Eurasian ancestry in modern Siberians based on mitogenomic data, BMC Evol. Biol., 2014, vol. 14, p. 217.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bandelt, H.J., Forster, P., and Röhl, A., Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies, Mol. Biol. Evol., 1999, vol. 16, pp. 37–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Forster, P., Harding, R., Torroni, A., and Bandelt, H.J., Origin and evolution of Native American mtDNA variation: a reappraisal, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 1996, vol. 59, pp. 935–945.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Soares, P., Ermini, L., Thomson, N., et al., Correcting for purifying selection: an improved human mitochondrial molecular clock, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2009, vol. 84, pp. 740–759.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Perego, U.A., Achilli, A., Angerhofer, N., et al., Distinctive Paleo-Indian migration routes from Beringia marked by two rare mtDNA haplogroups, Curr. Biol., 2009, vol. 19, pp. 1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Davidovic, S., Malyarchuk, B., Aleksic, J., et al., Mitochondrial DNA perspective of Serbian genetic diversity, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 2015, vol. 156, pp. 449–465.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stoljarova, M., King, J.L., Takahashi, M., et al., Whole mitochondrial genome genetic diversity in an Estonian population sample, Int. J. Leg. Med., 2016, vol. 130, pp. 67–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sedov, V.V., Proiskhozhdenie i rannyaya istoriya slavyan (The Origin and Early History of the Slavs), Moscow: Nauka, 1979.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gray, R.D. and Atkinson, Q.D., Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo- European origin, Nature, 2003, vol. 426, pp. 435–439.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gimbutas, M., The Prehistory of Eastern Europe: part 1: Mesolithic, Neolithic and Copper Age Cultures in Russia and the Baltic Area, Cambridge: The Peabody Museum, 1956.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Anthony, D.W., The Horse, The Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, New Jersey: Princeton Univ. Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Malyarchuk, B., Derenko, M., Grzybowski, T., et al., Differentiation of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes in Russian populations, Hum. Biol., 2004, vol. 76, pp. 877–900.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Balanovskaya, E.V., Pezhemskii, D.V., Romanov, A.G., et al., Gene pool of the Russian North: Slavs? Finns? Paleoeuropeans?, Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Ser. 23: Anthropol., 2011, no. 3, pp. 27–58.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Morozova, I., Evsyukov, A., Kon’kov, A., et al., Russian ethnic history inferred from mitochondrial DNA diversity, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 2012, vol. 147, pp. 341–351.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Soltyszewski, I., Plocienniczak, A., Fabricius, H.A., et al., Analysis of forensically-used autosomal short tandem repeat markers in Polish and neighboring populations, Forensic Sci. Int.: Genet., 2008, vol. 2, pp. 205–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Malyarchuk
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. V. Derenko
    • 1
  • A. N. Litvinov
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Far Eastern BranchRussian Academy of SciencesMagadanRussia

Personalised recommendations