An analysis of genetic diversity in nine ethnic groups of the Volga-Ural region was carried out using 15 biallelic loci in the nonrecombining region of the Y-chromosome. The major Y-chromosome haplogroups in the region are R1a-M198, R1b-M269, and N-M231. It was found that Bashkirs show the greatest difference from other populations of the Volga-Ural region according both to F st and to the principal component analysis. In addition, analysis of the frequency distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups was carried out in the Besermyan population, which was not studied previously from the Y-chromosome perspective. The results of this study revealed the predominance of haplogroup N-M231 (54.7%) in this ethnic group, which may indicate the prevalence of the Finno-Ugric component in the formation of the patrilineal component in the gene pool of the Besermyan ethnic group.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Jobling, M.A. and Tyler-Smith, C., The human Y chromosome: an evolutionary marker comes of age, Nat. Rev. Genet., 2003, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 598–612.
Underhill, P.A., Passarino, G., Lin, A.A., et al., The phylogeography of Y chromosome binary haplotypes and the origins of modern human populations, Ann. Hum. Genet., 2001, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 43–62.
Finnila, S., Lehtonen, M.S., and Majamaa, K., Phylogenetic network for European mtDNA, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2001, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 1475–1484.
Malyarchuk, B., Derenko, M., Denisova, G., and Kravtsova, O., Mitogenomic diversity in Tatars from the Volga-Ural region of Russia, Mol. Biol. Evol., 2010, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 2220–2226.
Denisova, G.A., Malyarchuk, B.A., Derenko, M.V., and Kravtsova, O.A., Population structure of Volga Tatars inferred from the mitochondrial DNA diversity data, Russ. J. Genet., 2011, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 340–346.
Ingman, M. and Gyllensten, U., A recent genetic link between Sami and the Volga-Ural region of Russia, Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2006, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 115–120.
Bermisheva, M., Tambets, K., Villems, R., and Khusnutdinova, E., Diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups in ethnic populations of the Volga-Ural region, Mol. Biol. (Moscow), 2002, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 802–812.
Khusnutdinova, E.K., Viktorova, T.V., Akhmetova, V.L., et al., Population-genetic structure of Chuvashia (from data on eight DNA loci in the nuclear genome), Russ. J. Genet., 2003, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 1550–1563.
Khusnutdinova, E.K., Molekulyarnaya etnogenetika narodov Volgo-Ural’skogo regiona (Molecular Ethnogenetics of Populations of the Volgo-Ural Region), Ufa: Gilem, 1999.
Khusnutdinova, E.K., Khidiiatova, I.M., Viktorova, T.V., et al., Analysis of the genetic differentiation of Bashkirs and peoples from the Volgo-Ural region from data on polymorphic markers of the nuclear genome, Russ. J. Genet., 1999, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 831–837.
Khusnutdinova, E.K., Khidiyatova, I.M., Viktorova, T.V., et al., Estimation of genetic distances and taxonomic analysis of human populations of the Volga-Ural region based on the data on DNA polymorphism, Russ. J. Genet., 1999, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 843–847.
Khusnutdinova, E.K., Viktorova, T.V., Fatkhlislamova, R.I., and Khidiatova, I.M., Restriction polymorphism of the major non-decoding region of mitochondrial DNA in human populations from the Volga-Ural region, Russ. J. Genet., 1999, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 695–702.
Limborskaya, S.A., Khusnutdinova, E.K., and Balanovskaya, E.V., Etnogenomika i genogeografiya narodov Vostochnoi Evropy (Ethnogenomics and Gene Geography of East European Populations), Moscow: Nauka, 2002.
Bermisheva, M.A., Viktorova, T.V. and Khusnutdinova, E.K., Polymorphism of Y-chromosomal diallelic loci in populations of the Volga-Ural region, Russ. J. Genet., 2001, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 833–837.
Lobov, A.S., Gene pool structure of subpopulation of Bashkirs, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. Dissertation, Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ural Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, 2009.
Underhill, P.A., Myres, N.M., Rootsi, S., et al., Separating the post-glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a, Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2010, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 479–484.
Myres, N.M., Rootsi, S., Lin, A.A., et al., A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe, Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2011, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 95–101.
Tambets, K., Rootsi, S., Kivisild, T., et al., The western and eastern roots of the Saami-the story of genetic “outliers” told by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2004, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 661–682.
Mathew, C.G., The isolation of high molecular weight eukaryotic DNA, Methods Mol. Biol., 1985, vol. 2, pp. 31–34.
YCC: A nomenclature system for the tree of human Y-chromosomal binary haplogroups, Genome Res., 2002, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 339–348.
Karafet, T.M., Mendez, F.L., Meilerman, M.B., et al., New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human y chromosomal haplogroup tree, Genome Res., 2008, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 830–838.
Slatkin, M., A measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies, Genetics, 1995, vol. 139, pp. 457–462.
Schneider, S., Roessli, D., and Excoffier, L., ARLE-QUIN, Version 2.000: A Software for Population Genetics Data Analysis, Geneva: Univ. Geneva, 2000.
Semino, O., Passarino, G., Oefner, P.J., et al., The genetic legacy of Palaeolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective, Science, 2000, vol. 290, no. 5494, pp. 1155–1159.
Cinnioglu, C., King, R., Kivisild, T., et al., Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia, Hum. Genet., 2004, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 127–148.
Sengupta, S., Zhivotovsky, L.A., King, R., et al., Polarity and temporality of high-resolution Y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of central Asian pastoralists, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2006, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 202–221.
Derenko, M., Malyarchuk, B., Denisova, G.A., et al., Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in south Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions, Hum. Genet., 2006, vol. 118, no. 5, pp. 591–604.
Underhill, P.A., Poznik, G.D., Rootsi, S., et al., The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a, Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2014. doi 10.1038/ejhg 2014.50
Cadenas, A.M., Zhivotovsky, L.A., Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., et al., Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman, Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2008, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 374–386.
Balanovsky, O., Rootsi, S., Pshenichnov, A., et al., Two sources of the Russian patrilineal heritage in their Eurasian context, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2008, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 236–250.
Kivisild, T., Rootsi, S., Metspalu, M., et al., The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2003, vol. 72, pp. 313–332.
Rootsi, S., Zhivotovsky, L.A., Baldovic, M., et al., A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe, Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2007, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 204–211.
Derenko, M., Malyarchuk, B., Denisova, G., et al., Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from south Siberia to Europe, J. Hum. Genet., 2007, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 763–770.
All-Russian Population Census 2010. http://www.gks.ru
Belykh, S.K., On the origin of self-designation of Besermyans, in VIII Petryaevskie Chteniya (8th Petryaev Readings) (Proc. Sci. Conf.), Kirov, 2005, pp. 130–135.
Popova, E.V., Semeinye obychai i obryady besermyan (konets XIX-90-e gody XX vv.) (Family Customs and Rites of Besermyans (the End of the 19th Century-90th Years of the 20th Century)), Izhevsk: Udmurtskii Institut Istorii, Yazyka i Literatury, Uralskoye Otdelenie Rossiyskoy Akademii Nauk, 1998.
Grosheva, A.N., Shneider, Y. V., Morozova, I.Y., et al., Genetic diversity of Besermyans inferred from mitochondrial DNA polymorphism, Russ. J. Genet., vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1168–1174.
Smirnov, A.P., Materials po istorii mordvy VIII-XI vv. (Materials on the History of Mordovians 8–11 Centuries), Morshansk, 1952.
Rootsi, S., Magri, C., Kivisild, T., et al., Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup I reveals distinct domains of prehistoric gene flow in Europe, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2004, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 128–137.
Yunusbayev, B., Metspalu, M., Jarve, M., et al., The Caucasus as an asymmetric semipermeable barrier to ancient human migrations, Mol. Biol. Evol., 2012, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 359–365.
Khusnutdinova, E.K., Litvinov, S.S., Kutuev, I.A., et al., Gene pool of ethnic groups of the Caucasus: results of integrated study of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA and genome-wide data, Russ. J. Genet., 2012, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 640–650.
Cruciani, F., La Fratta, R., Trombetta, B., et al., Tracing past human male movements in northern/eastern Africa and western Eurasia: new clues from Y-chromosomal haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12, Mol. Biol. Evol., 2007, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1300–1311.
Abu-Amero, K.K., Hellani, A., Gonzalez, A.M., et al., Saudi Arabian Y-chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions, BMC Genet., 2009, vol. 10, p. 59.
Khusnutdinova, E.K., Khidiatova, I.M, and Prosniak, M.I., Analysis of DNA polymorphism detectable by DNA fingerprint based on DNA from M13 phage in Bashkir and Komi populations, Russ. J. Genet., 1994, no. 12, pp. 1621–1625.
Original Russian Text © N.V. Trofimova, S.S. Litvinov, R.I. Khusainova, L.N. Penkin, V.L. Akhmetova, F.S. Akhatova, E.K. Khusnutdinova, 2015, published in Genetika, 2015, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 120–127.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Trofimova, N.V., Litvinov, S.S., Khusainova, R.I. et al. Genetic characterization of populations of the Volga-Ural region according to the variability of the Y-chromosome. Russ J Genet 51, 108–115 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1022795414120138
- Popu Lations
- Nonrecombining Region
- Biallelic Locus
- Volga Ural Region
- Chromosome Haplogroups