Effect of (+) and (–) Usnic Acid on Physiological, Biochemical, and Cytological Characteristics of Allium fistulosum Seeds

Abstract

The effect of (+) and (–)-usnic acid (UA) on the physiological, biochemical, and cytological characteristics of Allium fistulosum L. seedlings was studied. It was shown that germination of seeds in the medium supplemented with both enantiomers of UA at concentrations of 62.5–1000 μM led to a decrease in laboratory germination, an inhibition of growth processes, a slowing of the mitotic activity of root meristems, and tissue depigmentation. A dose-dependent increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the degree of damage to nuclear DNA in cells was shown, which indicates the potentially genotoxic and mutagenic effect of the studied UA enantiomers. However, (–)-UA induced a greater number of atypical DNA comets than the (+)-enantiomer, which may indicate its stronger effect on DNA fragmentation in cells. An increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and a decrease in the content of flavonoids were observed under the action of both UA enantiomers against the background of the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in seedlings’ cells, which indicates the development of oxidative stress. At the same time, no significant differences between the activity of (+) and (–)-UAs at the level of physiological and biochemical parameters of seedlings were revealed.

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Funding

This study was carried out as part of the state tasks of the Institute of Biological Problems of the Cryolithozone (Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences) for 2017–2020 no. AAAA-A17-117020110055-3 Development of Biological Products from Tissues of Plants and Animals of Yakutia Based on the Study of the Peculiarities of Their Biochemical Composition and Mechanisms of Adaptation to the Conditions of the North and no. AAAA-A17-117020110056-0 Fundamental and Applied Aspects of the Study of Plant Diversity in North and Central Yakutia.

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Correspondence to I. A. Prokopiev.

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Translated by M. Shulskaya

Abbreviations: CAT—catalase; MI—mitotic index; POX—peroxidase; SOD—superoxide dismutase; UA—usnic acid.

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Prokopiev, I.A., Filippova, G.V. Effect of (+) and (–) Usnic Acid on Physiological, Biochemical, and Cytological Characteristics of Allium fistulosum Seeds. Russ J Plant Physiol 67, 1046–1053 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1134/S102144372006014X

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Keywords:

  • Allium fistulosum
  • usnic acid
  • phytotoxicity
  • genotoxicity
  • oxidative stress