Skip to main content
Log in

The Technique of Water Extract Preparation from Goat Willow Leaves with Allowance for Circadian Rhythm of Their Biological Activity to Stimulate Scots Pine Seed Germination

  • Published:
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The preparative technique for water extraction of goat willow (Salix caprea L.) growing leaves was elaborated in order to stimulate Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed germination by the extracts (patent no. 2662999). It was shown that the effects of the extract were accounted for by its biological activity, which considerably varied depending on the time of day for extract sampling. The maximal increase in gibberellin-like activity (equivalent to 3.4–3.6 µM GA3) and marked decrease in ABA-like activity (equivalent to 0.15‒0.30 µM ABA) were recorded in the willow leaf extracts harvested in the morning (8:00 a.m.) or evening (8:00 p.m.) in South Karelia (60° N) in mid-May. Application of the extracts to pine seeds afforded the maximal effects on their germination. Thus, the second-class seeds displayed qualitative characteristics of the first-class seeds (germination exceeding 80%) after the treatment. It is concluded that the introduction of the method into practice will allow utilization of the accessible, widespread plant raw material for production of the effective natural preparation, which is capable of improving sowing qualities of Scots pine seeds.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1.

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Orekhova, T.P., Formation of a long-term bank of tree species seeds is a real way to preserve their gene pool, Khvoinye Boreal’noi Zony, 2010, vol. 27, nos. 1–2, pp. 25–31.

  2. Obroucheva, N.V., Transition from hormonal to nonhormonal regulation as exemplified by seed dormancy release and germination triggering, Russ. J. Plant Physiol., 2012, vol. 59, pp. 546–552.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Zhao, G. and Jiang, X., Roles of gibberellin and auxin in promoting seed germination and seedling vigor in Pinus massoniana, For. Sci., 2014, vol. 60, pp. 367–373.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Zhao, G. and Zhong, T., Influence of exogenous IAA and GA on seed germination, vigor and their endogenous levels in Cunninghamia lanceolata, Scand. J. For. Res., 2013, vol. 28, pp. 511–517.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Mugloo, J.A., Mir, N.A., Khan, P.A., Perray, G.N., and Kaisar, K.N., Effect of different pre-sowing treatments on seed germination of spruce (Picea smithiana Wall. Boiss) seeds under temperate conditions of Kashmir Himalayas, India, Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 2017, vol. 6, pp. 3603–3612.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Kirsanova, E.V., Tsukanova, Z.R., and Musalatova, N.N., The prospects of pre-sowing treatment by the growth regulators of spring wheat seeds in the Orel region, Vestn. Orel Gos. Agrar. Univ., 2008, no. 3, pp. 21–23.

  7. Panyushkina, N.V., Karasev, V.N., Karaseva, M.A., and Brodnikov, S.N., Method of stimulation of germination rate of Pinus sylvestris seeds, RF Patent no. 2569017, 2015, Byull. Izobret., 2015, no. 32.

  8. Egorova, A.V., Chernobrovkina, N.P., and Robonen, E.V., Effects of application of a conifer-derived chemical on the growth and elemental composition of Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings in a forest nursery, Khim. Rastit. Syr’ya, 2017, no. 2, pp. 171–180.

  9. Atamian, H.S. and Harmer, S.H., Circadian regulation of hormone signaling and plant physiology, Plant Mol. Biol., 2016, vol. 91, pp. 691–702.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Egorshina, A.A., Khairullin, R.M., Sakhabutdinova, A.R., and Luk’yantsev, M.A., Involvement of phytohormones in the development of interaction between wheat seedlings and endophytic Bacillus subtilis strain 11BM, Russ. J. Plant Physiol., 2012, vol. 59, pp. 134–140.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Kefeli, V.I., Prirodnye ingibitory rosta i fitogormony (Natural Growth Inhibitors and Phytohormones), Moscow: Nauka, 1974.

  12. Nefed'eva, E.E. and Mazei, N.G., Gibberellin A3 detection in plants with high-performance liquid chromatography, Appl. Biochem. Microbiol., 2009, vol. 45, pp. 454–458.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Sharma, S., Sharma, S.S., and Rai, V.K., Modulation by phenolic compounds of ABA-induced inhibition of mustard (Brassica juncea L., cv. RLM 198) seed germination, Indian J. Exp. Biol., 2003, vol. 41, pp. 352–356.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Lee, I.J., Foster, K.R., and Morgan, P.W., Photoperiod control of gibberellin levels and flowering in sorghum, Plant Physiol., 1998, vol. 116, pp. 1003–1011.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Stavang, J.A., Lindgard, B., Erntsen, A., Lid, S.E., Moe, R., and Olsen, J.E., Thermoperiodic stem elongation involves transcriptional regulation of gibberellin deactivation in pea, Plant Physiol., 2005, vol. 138, pp. 2344–2353.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Nováková, M., Motyka, V., Dobrev, P., Malbeck, J., Gaudinová, A., and Vanková, R., Diurnal variation of cytokinin, auxin and abscisic acid levels in tobacco leaves, J. Exp. Bot., 2005, vol. 56, pp. 2877–2883.

  17. Michael, T.P., Breton, G., Hazen, S.P., Priest, H., Mockler, T.C., Kay, S.A., and Chory, J., A morning-specific phytohormone gene expression program underlying rhythmic plant growth, PLoS Biol., 2008, vol. 6, pp. 1887–1898.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Wiese, A., Christ, M.M., Virnich, O., Schurr, U., and Walter, A., Spatio-temporal leaf growth patterns of Arabidopsis thaliana and evidence for sugar control of the diel leaf growth cycle, New Phytol., 2007, vol. 174, pp. 752–761.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Matsubara, S., Hurry, V., Druart, N., Benedict, C., Janzik, I., Chavarriia-Krauser, A., Walter, A., and Schurr, U., Nocturnal changes in leaf growth of Populus deltoides are controlled by cytoplasmic growth, Planta, 2006, vol. 223, pp. 1315–1328.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Barta, C. and Loreta, F., The relationship between the methyl-erythritol phosphate pathway leading to emission of volatile isopreniods and abscisic acid content in leaves, Plant Physiol., 2006, vol. 141, pp. 1676–1683.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. Kurapov, P.V., Hormonal balance of plants, Extended Abstract of Doctoral (Biol.) Dissertation, Moscow, 1996.

  22. Olsen, J.E., Moritz, T., Jensen, E., and Junttila, O., Comparison of endogenous gibberellins in roots and shoots of elongating Salix pentandra seedlings, Physiol. Plant., 1994, vol. 90, pp. 378–381.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Liu, L., McDonald, A.J.S., Stadenberg, I., and Davies, W.J., Stomatal and leaf growth responses to partial drying of root tips in willow, Tree Physiol., 2001, vol. 21, pp. 765–770.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Hamisch, D., Kaufholdt, D., Kuchernig, J.C., Bittner, F., Mendel, R.R., Hänsch, R., and Popko, J., Transgenic poplar plants for the investigation of ABA-dependent salt and drought stress adaptation in trees, Am. J. Plant Sci., 2016, vol. 7, pp. 1337–1356.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Vaistija, F.E., Barros-Galvãoa, T., Colea, A.F., Gildaya, A.D., Hea, Z., Lia, Y., Harveya, D., Larsona, T.R., and Grahama, I.A., MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 represses seed germination under far-red light by modulating phytohormone responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2018, vol. 115, pp. 8442–8447.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Chen, S.Y., Kuo, S.R., and Chien, C., Roles of gibberellins and abscisic acid in dormancy and germination of red bayberry (Myrica rubra) seeds, Tree Physiol., 2008, vol. 28, pp. 1431–1439.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Pulok, M.A.I., Rahman, M.M., Haque, M.N., Chakraborty, R., and Ali, M.S., Effect of growth regulators on germination and vigor of lentil seeds, J. Biosci. Agric. Res., 2015, vol. 3, pp. 8–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Amri, E., Germination of Terminalia sericea Buch ex Dc. seeds: effects of temperature regime, photoperiod, gibberellic acid and potassium nitrate, Am.-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci., 2010, vol. 8, pp. 722–727.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Zhang, Y., Lu, S., and Gao, H., Effects of stratification and hormone treatments on germination and physio-biochemical properties of Taxus chinensis var. mairei seed, Am. J. Plant Sci., 2012, vol. 3, pp. 829–835.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Feurtado, J.A., Yang, J., Ambrose, S.J., Cutler, A.J., Abrams, S.R., and Kermode, A.R., Disrupting abscisic acid homeostasis in western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) seeds induces dormancy termination and changes in abscisic acid catabolites, J. Plant Growth Regul., 2007, vol. 26, pp. 46–54.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


We thank member of Russian Academy of Natural Sciences Dr. Sci. (Biol.) N.V. Obrucheva for her valuable recommendations and fruitful discussion in the course of the manuscript preparation. The experiments were carried out on the equipment provided by the Center of Collective Exploitation.


The work was financially supported by the federal budget under State Task no. 0220-2017-0003 for the Karelian Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. V. Egorova.

Ethics declarations

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies involving animals or human participants performed by any of the authors.

Additional information

Translated by A. Aver’yanov

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Egorova, A.V., Chernobrovkina, N.P., Robonen, E.V. et al. The Technique of Water Extract Preparation from Goat Willow Leaves with Allowance for Circadian Rhythm of Their Biological Activity to Stimulate Scots Pine Seed Germination. Russ J Plant Physiol 66, 827–833 (2019).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: