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Antioxidant defense system, lipid peroxidation, proline-metabolizing enzymes, and biochemical activities in two Morus alba genotypes subjected to NaCl stress


Salt stress-induced changes in antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, proline and glycine betaine contents, and proline-metabolizing enzymes were examined in the leaves of two mulberry cultivars (Local and Sujanpuri). With increasing salinity up to 150 mM NaCl, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascor-bate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities were increased in both cultivars as compared to control, but more pronounced increase was observed in cv. Local. Salt stress enhanced the rate of lipid peroxidation (as indicated by increasing MDA content) in both cultivars. Under NaCl stress, cv. Local showed less change in the MDA content than cv. Sujanpuri. Salt stress resulted in a significant accumulation of free proline in mulberry leaves, and more accumulation was detected in cv. Local than cv. Sujanpuri. The leaves of cv. Local showed 9-fold accumulation of glycine betaine in comparision with cv. Sujanpuri after 20 days at 150 mM NaCl. A decrease in proline oxidase activity and an increase in γ-glutamyl kinase activity were observed with increasing NaClconcentration. The relative water content and electrolyte leakage also decreased after increasing the NaCl concentration, but a decrease was more pronounced in cv. Sujanpuri than in cv. Local. The results indicate that oxidative stress may play an important role in salt-stressed mulberry plants and cv. Local have more efficient antioxidant characteristics, which could provide for a better protection against oxidative stress.

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ascorbate peroxidase




electrical conductivity


guaiacol peroxidase


glutathione reductases


monodehydroascorbate reductase


proline oxidase


γ-glutamyl kinase


superoxide dismutase


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Correspondence to P. Ahmad.

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Published in Russian in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2010, Vol. 57, No.4, pp. 547–555.

This text was submitted by the authors in English.

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Ahmad, P., Jaleel, C.A. & Sharma, S. Antioxidant defense system, lipid peroxidation, proline-metabolizing enzymes, and biochemical activities in two Morus alba genotypes subjected to NaCl stress. Russ J Plant Physiol 57, 509–517 (2010).

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Key words

  • Morus alba
  • antioxidants
  • glycine betaine
  • lipid peroxidation
  • proline
  • salinity