Skip to main content

Social tension versus the social situation


The key characteristics of the social situation in their interconnection with the population’s orientations to various forms of protest activity are considered. The empirical base of this paper is the data of the comparative representative studies conducted in Moscow in 2008–2016. Analysis of these data has made it possible to fix negative trends in the development of the social feeling of citizens in recent years. The authors characterize the dynamics of social tension and citizens’ attitude to various forms of defending their interests. The use of binary logistic regression makes it possible to build a hierarchy of the social situation’s factors that demonstrate the probability of active participation in protest. Such factors include negative phenomena of social life, a critical attitude to the existing political system, and adoption of orientations at participating in a conflict on the side of one’s ethnic group. Consideration of the above factors in the practice of social management can minimize the potential of social tension.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Sociological Encyclopedic Dictionary, Ed. by G. V. Osipov (Norma, Moscow, 1998) [in Russian].

  2. I. A. Klimov, “‘Constructive’ and ‘protest’ movements as a resource to change social practices,” Zh. Issled. Sotsial. Polit., No. 2, 201–216 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  3. E. A. Kublitskaya, “The scope of social activity of the population of a megalopolis,” Search: Policy. Social Studies. Art. Sociology. Culture, No. 4, 41–49 (2011).

    Google Scholar 

  4. B. I. Maksimov, “Russia’s appearance in Pikalevo,” Sotsis, No. 4, 42–53 (2010).

    Google Scholar 

  5. V. K. Levashov, “Civil society: Protest or Consensus?,” Monitoring Obshch. Mneniya: Ekon. Sots. Peremeny, No. 3, 73–83 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  6. O. N. Yanitskii, Social Movements: Theory, Practice, Prospects (Novyi Khronograf, Moscow, 2013) [in Russian].

    Google Scholar 

  7. The Apolitical’s Politics: Civil Movements in Russia of 2011–2013, Ed. by S. V. Erpylev and A. V. Magun (Novoe Literaturnoe (Novoe Literaturnoe Obozrenie, Moscow, 2014) [in Russian].

  8. T. R. Gurr, Why Men Rebel (Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, 1970).

    Google Scholar 

  9. B. Klandermans, “How group identification helps to overcome the dilemma of collective action,” American Behavioral Scientist 45, 887–900 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. B. Klandermans, The Social Psychology of Protest (Blackwell, Oxford, 1997).

    Google Scholar 

  11. K. D. Opp, “Contending conceptions of the theory of rational action,” J. Theor. Politics 11, 171–202 (1999).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. S. Bell, D. Cingranelli, A. Murdie, and A. Caglayan, “Coercion, capacity, and coordination: Predictors of political violence,” Conflict Management Peace Sci. 30, 240–262 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. D. Meyer, “Protest and political opportunities,” Ann. Rev. Soc. 30, 125–145 (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. M. M. Nazarov, “Value orientations in society during the transformation period,” in Russia: Subjective and Objective Factors of Recovering from the Crisis. Russia amid the Global crisis. The Social and Sociopolitical Situation in Russia in 2009, Ed. by G. V. Osipov (ISPI RAN, Moscow, 2010) [in Russian].

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. N. Ivanov.

Additional information

Original Russian Text © V.N. Ivanov, M.M. Nazarov, E.A. Kublitskaya, 2017, published in Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk, 2017, Vol. 87, No. 9, pp. 840–847.

RAS Corresponding Member Vilen Nikolaevich Ivanov is an RAS Adviser. Mikhail Mikhailovich Nazarov is a Leading Researcher at the RAS Institute of Sociopolitical Research (RAS ISPR). Elena Aleksandrovna Kublitskaya is a Leading Researcher at the same institute.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ivanov, V.N., Nazarov, M.M. & Kublitskaya, E.A. Social tension versus the social situation. Her. Russ. Acad. Sci. 87, 432–438 (2017).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • social situation
  • social tension
  • protest participation
  • relative deprivation
  • protest predictors
  • long- and short-term factors of protest