Skip to main content

Ageing of the population in the Russian Federation: The current trends and indicators


The age structure of a population is an important factor of progressive economic growth. Population ageing is associated with the demographic characteristics of the population; when we evaluate population ageing, we evaluate population processes and indicators that are typically interconnected and interrelated. Two main factors contribute to the ageing of a population, namely, declines in mortality and fertility. Our study aims at describing population ageing in the Russian Federation by the last census of 2010. The purpose of the present paper is also to highlight selected indicators of population ageing in 83 federal subjects of Russia, showing a significant spatial differentiation of population ageing, depending on gender and urban–rural habitation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. A. C. Kuijsten, “Changing family patterns in Europe: A case of divergence?,” European J. Population— Revue europeenne de demographie 12 (2), 115 (1996). doi 10.1007/bf01797080

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. E. Diczfalusy, “The demographic revolution and our common future,” Maturitas 38 (1), 5 (2001). doi 10.1016/S0378-5122(00)00187-0

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. T. Sobotka, “The diverse faces of the second demographic transition in Europe,” Demographic Res. 19, 171 (2008). doi 10.4054/demres.2008.19.8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. M. Káerová and J. Mládek, “Population ageing as generation substitutions: Economic and social aspects,” Ekon. asopis 60 (3), 259 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  5. E. Grundy and A. Sloggett, “Health inequalities in the older population: The role of personal capital, social resources, and socio-economic circumstances,” Soc. Sci. Med. 56 (5), 935 (2003). doi 10.1016/S02779536(02)00093-X

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. N. Jackson, The Policy-Maker’s Guide to Population Ageing: Key Concepts and Issues, Policy research paper no. 13 (Univ. of Tasmania, Canberra, 2001).

    Google Scholar 

  7. M. Káerová, J. Ondá kova, and J. Mládek, “A comparison of population ageing in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic based on generation support and exchange,” Moravian Geogr. Reports 20 (4), 26 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  8. S. P. Morgan, “Is low fertility a twenty-first-century demographic crisis?,” Demography 40 (4), 589 (2003). doi 10.1353/dem.2003.0037

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. G. Mujahid, Population Ageing in East and South-East Asia: Current Situation and Emerging Challenges (UNFPA Country Technical Service Team for East and South-East Asia, Bangkok, 2006).

    Google Scholar 

  10. J. C. Chesnais, “Demographic transition patterns and their impact on the age structure,” Population Development Rev. 16 (2), 327 (1990). doi 10.2307/1971593

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. T. Sobotka, “Re-emerging diversity: Rapid fertility changes in Central and Eastern Europe after the collapse of the Communist regimes,” Population 58 (4–5), 451 (2003). doi 10.3917/pope.304.0451

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. The Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation. Population Census 2010. http://wwwgksru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612. htm. Cited March 15, 2015.

  13. A. Avdeev, A. Blum, S. Zakharov, and E. Andreev, “The reaction of a heterogeneous population to perturbation. An interpretative model of mortality trends in Russia,” Population 10 (2), 267 (1998).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. P. Walberg, M. McKee, V. Shkolnikov, et al., “Economic change, crime, and mortality crisis in Russia: Regional analysis,” BMJ 317 (7154), 312 (1998). doi 10.1136/bmj.317.7154.312

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. M. Okolski, “Recent trends and major issues in international migration: Central and East European perspectives,” Int. Soc. Sci. J. 52 (3), 329 (2000). doi 10.1111/1468-2451.00263

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. G. G. Karpova and M. A. Vorona, “Labour migration in Russia: Issues and policies,” Int. Soc. Work 57 (5), 535 (2014). doi 10.1177/0020872814536420

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. A. Mansoor and B. Quillin, Migration and Remittances: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union (World Bank, Washington, 2007). doi 10.1596/978-0-82136233-4

    Google Scholar 

  18. S. A. Vassin, The Determinants and Implications of an Aging Population in Russia: Russia’s Demographic “Crisis” (RAND Corp., Santa Monica, 1996).

    Google Scholar 

  19. F. Meslé and J. Vallin, “Mortality in Europe: The divergence between East and West,” Population (English Edition) 57 (1), 157 (2002). doi 10.3917/pope.201.0157

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. W. Lutz, “The demography of future global population aging: Indicators, uncertainty, and educational composition,” Population Development Rev. 35 (2), 357 (2009). doi 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2009.00282x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. C. Caselli, J. Vallin, and W. Wunsch, Demography: Analysis and Synthesis: A Treatise in Population Studies (Academic Press, New York, 2006), Vol. 3.

    Google Scholar 

  22. N. S. Gavrilova and L. A. Gavrilov, “Rapidly aging populations: Russia/Eastern Europe,” in International Handbook of Population Aging, Ed. by P. Unhlenberg (Springer, 2009). doi 10.1007/978-1-40208356-3_6

    Google Scholar 

  23. C. Y. C. Chu, “Age-distribution dynamics and aging indexes,” Demography 34 (4), 551 (1997). doi 10.2307/3038309

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. F. Murgaš and M. Klobuník, “Municipalities and regions as good places to live: Index of quality of life in the Czech Republic,” Appl. Res. Quality Life (2014). doi 10.1007/s11482-014-9381-8

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. Bucher.

Additional information

Published in Russian in Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk, 2016, Vol. 86, No. 3, pp. 215–223.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bucher, S. Ageing of the population in the Russian Federation: The current trends and indicators. Her. Russ. Acad. Sci. 86, 97–104 (2016).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Russian Federation
  • indicators of economic and social support
  • demographic ageing
  • demographic transition
  • coefficients of inflow and outflow
  • age structure