Metazoan trace fossils from the Upper Vendian are preserved together with remains of corresponding organisms. The traces belong to “Vendobionta”, representing the Precambrian phylum Proarticulata and to a presumably trochophoran animal Kimberella quadrata. These organisms fed on microbial mats, which preserved fossil traces. Impressions of the mat surface structures, traces, and bodies of animals are preserved in marine terrigenous sediments on the basal surfaces of sandstone beds. Proarticulata grazing traces are represented by groups and chains of impressions left by the ventral side of a body or its central and posterior parts. Kimberella traces are represented by long ridges united into bundles, fans, and chains of fans. All these traces were largely formed mechanically, i.e., by mat scratching with cilia (Proarticulata) or teeth (Kimberella). Proarticulata representatives destroyed only a thin upper layer of the mat, while Kimberella could possibly scratch the mat through its entire thickness or even tear off pieces from it.
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Ivantsov, A.Y. Trace fossils of precambrian metazoans “Vendobionta” and “Mollusks”. Stratigr. Geol. Correl. 21, 252–264 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0869593813030039
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