The results of geochronological and petrological studies of the largest mafic dyke in the northern part of the Fennoscandian Shield, called the Great Dyke of the Kola Peninsula (GDK), are presented. According to U-Pb D-TIMS baddeleyite dating, the GDK crystallization age is 2680 ± 6 Ma. The age of host granites is 2.75–2.72 Ga (U-Pb, zircon, SHRIMP-II). The dyke has a simple internal structure with no signs of multistage melt injection. It comprises equigranular and plagioclase-porphyritic dolerites and gabbro that are amphibolitized to varying degrees. All rocks are low-Mg (Mg# less than 0.37) with low concentrations of Cr and Ni, and were derived through differentiation of more primitive melts. The analysis of geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data suggests that GDK melts could be formed by mixing of two types of mantle melts: depleted asthenospheric melt and enriched melt formed via melting of a lithospheric mantle. The weakly fractionated HREE patterns indicate that primary GDK melts originated at shallow (<60 km) depths outside the garnet stability field. The generation and injection of melts of the Neoarchean GDK occurred immediately after large-scale granitic magmatism and main crustal growth event in the Murmansk Craton and marked the cratonization of the continental lithosphere in the northeastern part of the Fennoscandian Shield.
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Supplementary to Russian and English on-line versions of paper are given at sites https://elibrary.ru/ and http://link.springer.com/ соответственно приведены: Supplementary 1: ESM_1.xlsx—Results of measurement of standard samples; Supplementary 2: ESM_2.xlsx—Compositions of minerals in GDK dolerites; Supplementary 3: ESM_3.xlsx—U-Pb data on sample Ca-812-16; Supplementary 4: ESM_4.xlsx—U-Pb data on sample Ca-554-3; Supplementary 5: ESM_5.xlsx—Composition of host rocks.
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Our studies were largely conducted owing to V.S. Kulikov, his encyclopedic knowledge and keen interest in the geology of Fennoscandia. Discussions on mafic dykes of the Fennoscandian Shield with V.S. Kulikov motivated us to study the Great Dyke of the Kola Peninsula, which is an important but forgotten for decades object. Our thanks for help in expedition works are addressed to the crew of the Udacha vessel O.U. Mingazov and G.I. Mukhin. Constructive comments of reviewers A.A. Nosova and N.M. Kudryashov significantly improved our manuscript.
The studies were supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project no. 16-17-10260P).
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Translated by M. Bogina
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Stepanova, A.V., Samsonov, A.V., Salnikova, E.B. et al. The Great Dyke of the Kola Peninsula as a Marker of an Archean Cratonization in the Northern Fennoscandian Shield. Petrology 30, 591–609 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1134/S086959112206008X