Based on the investigation of olivine phenocrysts and melt and spinel inclusions in them from the picrites of the Gudchikhinsky Formation and olivine phenocrysts and the whole-rock geochemistry from the Tuklonsky and Nadezhdinsky formations of the Noril’sk region, the compositions and conditions of formation and evolution of the parental melts and mantle sources of Siberian trap magmatism were evaluated. Olivine phenocrysts from the samples studied are enriched in Ni and depleted in Mn compared with olivines equilibrated with the products of peridotite melting, which suggests a considerable role of a nonperidotitic component (olivine-free pyroxenite) in their mantle source. The onset of Siberian trap magmatism (Gudchikhinsky Formation) was related to the melting of pyroxenite produced by the interaction of ancient recycled oceanic crust with mantle peridotite. During the subsequent evolution of the magmatic system (development of the Tuklonsky and Nadezhdinsky formations), the fraction of the pyroxenite component in the source region decreased rapidly (to 40 and 60%, respectively) owing to the entrainment of peridotite material into the melting zone. The formation of magmas was significantly affected by the contamination by continental crustal material. The primitive magmas of the Gudchikhinsky Formation crystallized under near-surface conditions at temperatures of 1250–1170°C and oxygen fugacities 2.5–3.0 orders of magnitude below the Ni-NiO buffer. Simultaneously, the magmas were contaminated by continental silicic rocks and evaporites. The parental magmas of the Gudchikhinsky rocks corresponded to tholeiitic picrites with 11–14 wt % MgO. They were strongly undersaturated in sulfur, contained less than 0.25 wt % water and carbon dioxide, and were chemically similar to the Hawaiian tholeiites. They were produced by melting of a pyroxenite source at depths of 130–180 km in a mantle plume with a potential temperature of 1500–1580°C. The presence of low melting temperature pyroxenite material in the source of Siberian trap magmas promoted the formation of considerable volumes of melt under the thick continental lithosphere, which could trigger its catastrophic collapse. The contribution of pyroxenite-derived melt to the magmas of the Siberian trap province was no less than 40–50%. This component, whose solid residue was free of sulfides and olivine, played a key role in the origin of high contents of Ni, Cu, and Pt-group elements and low sulfur contents in the parental trap magmas and prevented the early dispersion of these elements at the expense of sulfide melt fractionation. The high contents of Cl in the magmas resulted in considerable HCl emission into the atmosphere and could be responsible for the mass extinction at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary.
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Original Russian Text © A.V. Sobolev, N.A. Krivolutskaya, D.V. Kuzmin, 2009, published in Petrologiya, 2009, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 276–310.
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Sobolev, A.V., Krivolutskaya, N.A. & Kuzmin, D.V. Petrology of the parental melts and mantle sources of Siberian trap magmatism. Petrology 17, 253–286 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0869591109030047
- Mantle Plume
- Olivine Phenocryst
- Large Igneous Province