The review discusses the functional role of soluble and insoluble dietary fibers (DFs) contained in apples. The physiological effects of eating apples are considered along with possible mechanism of controlling appetite with the use of apple DFs.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Slavin, J.L. and Lloyd, B., Health benefits of fruits and vegetables, Adv. Nutr., 2012, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 506.
Feretti, G., Turco, I., and Bacchetti, T., Apple as source of dietary phytonutrients: bioavailability and evidence of protective effects against human cardiovascular disease, Food Nutr. Sci., 2014, vol. 5, no. 13, p. 1234.
Zielinski, G., DeVries, J.W., Crag, S.A., and Bridges, A.R., Dietary fiber in codex alimentarius: current status and ongoing discussion, Cereal Foods Worlds, 2013, vol. 58, no. 3, p. 148.
Dhingra, D., Michael, M., Rajput, H., and Patil, R.T., Dietary fibre in foods: a review, J. Food Sci. Technol., 2012, vol. 49, no. 3, p. 255.
Chawla, R. and Patil, G.R., Soluble dietary fiber, Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf., 2010, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 178.
Sato, M.F., Vieira, R.G., Zardo, D., et al., Apple pomace from eleven cultivars: an approach to identify sources of bioactive compounds, Acta Sci. Agron., 2010, vol. 32, no. 1, p. 29.
Perry, J.R. and Ying, W., A review of physiological effects of soluble and insoluble dietary fibers, J. Nutr. Food Sci., 2016, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 476.
Capuano, E., The behavior of dietary fiber in the gastrointestinal tract determines its physiological effect, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 2017, vol. 57, no. 16, p. 3543.
Chen, H.L., Lin, Y.M., and Wang, Y.C., Comparative effects of cellulose and soluble fibers (pectin, konjac glucomannan, inulin) on fecal water toxicity toward Caco-2 cells, fecal bacteria enzymes, bile acid, and short-chain fatty acids, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2010, vol. 58, no. 18, p. 10277.
Brambillasca, S., Zunino, P., and Cajarville, C., Addition of inulin, alfalfa and citrus pulp in diets for piglets: influence on nutritional and faecal parameters, intestinal organs, and colonic fermentation and bacterial populations, Livest. Sci., 2015, vol. 178, p. 243.
Robles, A.V. and Guarner, F., Linking the gut microbiota to human health, Br. J. Nutr., 2013, vol. 109, suppl. 2, p. S21.
Desai, M.S., Seekatz, A.M., Koropatkin, N.M., et al., A dietary fiber-deprived gut microbiota degrades the colonic mucus barrier and enhances pathogen susceptibility, Cell, 2016, vol. 167, no. 5, p. 1339.
Sanchez, D., Muguerza, B., Moulay, L., et al., Highly methoxylated pectin improves insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic risk factors in Zucker fatty rats, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, vol. 56, no. 10, p. 3574.
McClements, D.J., Decker, E.A., and Park, Y., Controlling lipid bioavalability through physicochemical and structural approaches, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 2009, vol. 49, no. 1, p. 48.
Kumar, A. and Chauhan, G.S., Extraction and characterization of pectin from apple pomace and its evaluation as lipase (steapsin) inhibitor, Carbohydr. Polym., 2010, vol. 82, no. 2, p. 454.
Espinal-Ruiz, M., Parada, A.F., Restrepo-Sanchez, L.-P., et al., Impact of a dietary fibers methyl cellulose? Chitosan and pectin on digestion of lipids under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, Food Funct., 2014, vol. 5, no. 12, p. 3083.
Sun, J. and Liu, R., Apple phytochemical extracts inhibit proliferation of estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent human cancer cells through cell cycle modulation, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, vol. 56, no. 24, p. 11661.
Young, G.P., Hu, Y., Le Leu, R.K., and Nyskohus, L., Dietary fibre and colorectal cancer. A model for environment–gene interactions, Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 2005, vol. 49, no. 6, p. 571.
Fiorucci, S. and Distrutti, E., Bile acid-activated receptors, intestinal microbiota and treatment of metabolic disorders, Trends Mol. Med., 2015, vol. 21, no. 11, p. 702.
Hyson, D.A., A comprehensive review of apples and apple components and their relationship to human health, Adv. Nutr., 2011, vol. 2, no. 5, p. 408.
Licht, T.R., Hansen, M., Bergstrom, A., et al., Effects of apples and specific apple component on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin, BMC Microbiol., 2010, vol. 10, no. 13, p. 10.
Jiang, T., Gao, X., Wu, Ch., et al., Apple-derived pectin modulates gut microbiota, improves gut barrier function, and attenuates metabolic endotoxemia in rats with diet-induced obesity, Nutrients, 2016, vol. 8, no. 3, p. 126.
Fiquerola, F., Luz Hurtado, M., Estevez, A.M., et al., Fibre concentrates from apple pomace and citrus peel as potential fibre sources for food enrichment, Food Chem., 2005, vol. 91, no. 3, p. 395.
Gorinstein, S., Zachwieja, Z., Folta, M., et al., Comparative content of dietary fiber, total phenolics and minerals in persimmons and apples, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, vol. 49, no. 2, p. 952.
Gheyas, F., Blankenship, S.M., Young, E., and Mc-Feeters, R., Dietary fibre content of thirteen apple cultivars, J. Sci. Food Agric., 1997, vol. 75, p. 333.
Colin-Henrion, M., Mehinagic, E., Renard, C.M.G.C., et al., From apple to applesauce: processing effects on dietary fibres and cell wall polysaccharides, Food Chem., 2009, vol. 117, no. 2, p. 254.
Fadaei, V. and Salehifar, M., Some chemical and functional characteristics of dietary fiber from five fiber sources, Eur. J. Exp. Biol., 2012, vol. 2, no. 3, p. 525.
Williams, B.A., Grant, L.J., Gidley, M.J., and Mikkelsen, D., Gut fermentation of dietary fibres: Physico-chemistry of plant cell walls and implications for health, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2017, vol. 18, no. 10, p. 2203.
Mohnen, D., Pectin structure and biosynthesis, Curr. Opin. Plant Biol., 2008, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 266.
Thakur, B.R., Singh, R.K., and Handa, A.K., Chemistry and uses of pectin—a review, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 1997, vol. 37, no. 1, p. 47.
Ovodov, Yu.S., Current views on pectin substances, Russ. J. Bioorg. Chem., 2009, vol. 35, no. 3, p. 269.
Billy, L., Mehinagic, E., Royer, G., et al., Relationship between texture and pectin composition of two apple cultivars during storage, Postharvest Biol. Technol., 2008, vol. 47, no. 3, p. 315.
Dongowski, G., Sembries, S., Bauckhage, K., et al., Degradation of apple cell wall material by commercial enzyme preparations, Nahrung, 2002, vol. 46, no. 2, p. 105.
Wikiera, A., Iria, M., and Mika, M., Health-promoting properties of pectin, Postepy Hig. Med. Dosw., 2014, vol. 68, p. 590.
Cani, P.D., Amar, J., Iglesias, M.A., et al., Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistence, Diabetes, 2007, vol. 56, no. 7, p. 1761.
Cani, P.D., Hoste, S., Guiot, Y., and Delzenne, N.M., Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates promote L-cell differentiation in the proximal colon rats, Br. J. Nutr., 2007, vol. 98, no. 1, p. 32.
Fabiani, R., Minelli, L., and Rosignoli, P., Apple intake and cancer risk, a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, Publ. Health Nutr., 2016, vol. 19, no. 14, p. 2603.
Liu, J.R., Dong, H.W., Chen, B.Q., et al., Fresh apples suppress mammary carcinogenesis and proliferative activity and induce apoptosis in mammary tumors of the Spraque-Dawley rat, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009, vol. 57, no. 1, p. 297.
Li, Y., Liu, L., Niu, Y., et al., Modified apple polysaccharide prevents against tumorigenesis in a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer: role of galectin-3 and apoptosis in cancer prevention, Eur. J. Nutr., 2012, vol. 51, no. 1, p. 107.
Olano-Martin, E., Rimbach, G.H., Gibson, G.R., and Rastall, R.A., Pectin and pectic-oligosaccharides induce apoptosis in vitro human colonic adenocarcinoma cells, Anticancer Res., 2003, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 341.
Liu, L., Li, Y.H., Niu, Y.B., et al., An apple oligogalactan prevents against inflammation and carcinogenesis by targeting LPS/TLR4/NF-kB pathway in a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer, Carcinogenesis, 2010, vol. 31, no. 10, p. 1822.
Zhang, D., Li, Y.H., Jiang, F.L., et al., Modified apple polysaccharides suppress the migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells induced by lipopolysaccharide, Nutr. Res., 2013, vol. 33, no. 10, p. 839.
Pirman, T., Ribeyre, M.C., Mosoni, L., et al., Dietary pectin stimulates protein metabolism in the digestive tract, Nutrition, 2007, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 69.
Tremaroli, V. and Backhed, F., Functional interactions between the gut microbiota and host metabolism, Nature, 2012, vol. 489, no. 7415, p. 242.
Chen,C.H., Sheu, M.T., Chen, T.F., et al., Suppression of endotoxin-induced proinflammatory responses by citrus pectin through blocking LPS signaling pathways, Biochem. Pharmacol., 2006, vol. 72, no. 8, p. 1001.
Leontowicz, M., Gorinstein, S., Leontowicz, H., et al., Apple and pear peel and pulp and their influence on plasma lipids and antioxidant potentials in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, vol. 51, no. 19, p. 5780.
Terpstra, A.H., Lapre, J.A., de Vries, H.T., and Beynen, A.C., Intact pectin and its polygalacturonic acid regions have similar hypocholesterolemic properties in hybrid F1B hamsters, Nahrung, 2002, vol. 46, no. 2, p. 83.
Wolfe, K., Wu, X., and Liu, R.H., Antioxidant activity of apple peels, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, vol. 51, no. 3, p. 609.
Vrhovsek, U., Rigo, A., Tonon, D., and Mattivi, F., Quantitation of polyphenols in different apple varieties, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, vol. 52, no. 21, p. 6532.
Quiros-Sauceda, A.E., Palafox-Carlos, H., Sayago-Ayerdi, S.G., et al., Dietary fiber and phenolic compounds as functional ingredients: interaction and possible effect after ingestion, Food Funct., 2014, vol. 5, no. 6, p. 1063.
Saura-Calixto, F., Dietary Fiber as a carrier of dietary antioxidants: an essential physiological function, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2011, vol. 59, no. 1, p. 43.
Nishijima, T., Takida, Y., Saito, Y., et al., Simultaneous ingestion of high-methoxy pectin from apple can enchance absorption of quercetin in human subjects, Br. J. Nutr., 2015, vol. 113, no. 10, p. 1531.
Aprikian, O., Duclos, V., Guyot, S., et al., Apple pectin and a polyphenol rich apple concentrate are more effective together than separately on cecal fermentations and plasma lipids in rats, J. Nutr., 2003, vol. 133, no. 6, p. 1860.
Boyer, J. and Liu, R.H., Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits, Nutr. J., 2004, vol. 3, no. 5. http://www.nutritionj.com/content/3/1/5.
Çelik, E.E., Gőkmen, V., and Skibsted, L.H., Synergism between soluble and dietary fiber bound antioxidants, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2015, vol. 63, no. 8, p. 2338.
Liu, R.H., Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2003, vol. 78, suppl. 3, p. 517.
Liu, X., Wu, Y., Li, F., and Zhang, D., Dietary fiber intake reduces risk of inflammatory bowel disease: result from a meta-analysis, Nutr. Res., 2015, vol. 35, no. 9, p. 753.
Samout, N., Bouzenna, H., Dhibi, S., et al., Therapeutic effect of apple pectin in obese rats, Biomed. Parmacother., 2016, vol. 83, p. 1233.
Wismar, R., Brix, S., Frokiaer, H., and Laerke, H.N., Dietary fibers as immunoregulatory compounds in health and disease, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 2010, no. 1190, p. 70.
Najafian, M.Z., Jahromi, M.J., Nowroznejhad, P., et al., Phloridzin reduces blood glucose levels and improves lipids metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, Mol. Biol. Rep., 2012, vol. 39, no. 5, p. 5299.
Wolfe, K.E. and Liu, R.H., Apples peels as value-added food ingredient, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, vol. 51, no. 6, p. 1676.
Feliciano, R.P., Antunes, C., Ramos, A., et al., Characterization of traditional and exotic apple varieties from Portugal. Part 1—Nutritional phytochemical and sensory evaluation, J. Funct. Foods, 2010, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 35.
Koryachkina, S.Ya., Ladnova, O.L., Godunov, O.A., et al., The physiological effect of the use of fruit and vegetable powders in an animal experiment, Vopr. Pitan., 2016, vol. 85, no. 6, p. 48.
Avci, A., Atli, T., Eruder, I., et al., Effects of apple consumption on plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters in elderly subjects, Exp. Aging Res., 2007, vol. 33, no. 4, p. 429.
Ko, S.-H., Choi, S.-W., Ye, S.-K., et al., Comparison of the antioxidant activities of nine different fruits in human plasma, J. Med. Food., 2005, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 41.
Asita, A.O. and Molise, T., Antimutagenic effects of red apple and watermelon juices on cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity in mice, Afr. J. Biotechnol., 2011, vol. 10, no. 77, p. 17763.
Ivanova, N.N., Khomich, L.M., and Petrova, I.B., Nutrient profile of apple juice, Vopr. Pitan., 2017, vol. 86, no. 4, p. 125.
Sudha, M.L., Dharmesh, S.M., Pynam, H., et al., Antioxidant and cyto/DNA protective properties of apple pomace enriched bakery products, J. Food Sci. Technol., 2016, vol. 53, no. 4, p. 1909.
Rana, S., Gupta, S., Rana, A., and Bushan, S., Functional properties, phenolic constituents and antioxidant potential of industrial apple pomace for utilization as active food ingredient, Food Sci. Human Wellness, 2015, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 180.
Chen, H., Rubenthaler, G.L., Leung, H., and Baranowski, J.D., Chemical, physical and baking properties of apple fiber compared with wheat and oat bran, Cereal Chem., 1988, vol. 65, no. 3, p. 244.
Kolodziejczyk, K., Markowski, J., Kosmala, M., et al., Apple pomace as a potential source of nutraceutical products, Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 2007, vol. 57, no. 4, p. 291.
Bessonov, V.V., Baigarin, E.K., Gorshunova, P.A., et al., The interaction of dietary fiber with various functional food ingredients, Vopr. Pitan., 2012, vol. 81, no. 3, p. 41.
De Graaf, C., Blom, W., Smeets, P., Stafleu, A., et al., Biomarkers of satiation and satiety, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2004, vol. 79, no. 6, p. 946.
Kristensen, M. and Jensen, M.G., Dietary fibres in the regulation of appetite and food intake. Importance of viscosity, Appetite, 2011, vol. 56, no. 1, p. 65.
Clark, M.J. and Slavin, J.L., The effect of fiber on satiety and food intake: a systematic review, J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 2013, vol. 32, no. 3, p. 200.
Wanders, A.J., Jonathan, M.C., van den Borne, J.J.G.C., et al., The effects of bulking, viscous and gel-forming dietary fibres on satiation, Br. J. Nutr., 2013, vol. 109, no. 7, p. 1330.
Fiszman, S. and Varela, P., The satiating mechanisms of major food constituents—An aid to rational food design, Trends Food Sci. Technol., 2013, vol. 32, no. 1, p. 43.
Borreani, J., Llorca, E., Larrea, V., and Hernando, I., Adding neutral or anionic hydrocolloids to dairy proteins under in vitro gastric digestion conditions, Food Hydrocolloids, 2016, vol. 57, p. 169.
Müller, M., Canfora, E.E., and Blaak, E.E., Gastrointestinal transit time, glucose homeostasis and metabolic health: modulation by dietary fibers, Nutrition, 2018, V. 10, no. 3, p. 275.
Adam, C.L., Gratz, S.W., Peinado, D.I., et al., Effects of dietary fibre (pectin) and/or increased protein (casein or pea) on satiety, body weight, adiposity and caecal fermentation in high fat diet-induced obese rats, PloS One, 2016, vol. 11, no. 5, p. 1.
Pereira, M.A. and Ludwig, D.S., Dietary fiber and body-weight regulation. Observations and mechanisms, Pediatr. Clin. North Am., 2001, vol. 48, no. 4, p. 969.
Flood-Obbagy, J.E. and Rolls, B.S., The effect of fruit in different forms on energy intake and satiety an meal, Appetite, 2009, vol. 52, no. 2, p. 416.
Rolls, B.J., Dietary energy density: applying behavioural science to weight management, Nutr. Bull., 2017, vol. 42, no. 3, p. 246.
O’Neil, C.E., Nicklas, T.A., and Fulgoni, V.L., Consumption of apples is associated with a better diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010, Nutr. J., 2015, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 48.
Cho, K.-D., Han, C.-K., and Lee, B.H., Loss of body weight and fat and improved lipid profiles in obese rats fed apple pomace or apple juice concentrate, J. Med. Food., 2013, vol. 16, no. 9, p. 823.
Delzenne, N.M. and Cani, P.H., Some studies have reported a satiety effect of soluble fibers, Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab., 2005, vol. 8, no. 6, p. 636.
Zhang, S. and Vardhanabhuti, B., Intragastric gelation of whey protein-pectin alters the digestibility of whey protein during in vitro pepsin digestion, Food Funct., 2014, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 102.
Cummings, D.E., Ghrelin and the short- and long-term regulation of appetite and body weight, Physiol. Behav., 2006, vol. 89, no. 1, p. 71.
Slavin J., Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits, Nutrients, 2013, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 1417.
Adam, C.L., Williams, P.A., Garden, K.E., et al., Dose-dependent effects of a soluble dietary fibre (pectin) on food intake, adiposity, gut hypertrophy and gut satiety hormone secretion in rats, PloS One, 2015, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 438.
Adam, C.L., Williams, P.A., Dalby, M.J., et al., Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats, Nutr. Metab. (London), 2014, vol. 11, p. 36.
Galvao, F.C., Ton, W.T.S., and Alfenas, C.G., Addition of dietary fiber sources to shakes reduces postprandial glycemia and alters food intake, Nutr. Hosp., 2015, vol. 31, no. 1, p. 299.
Dandona, P., Aljada, A., and Bandyopadhyay, A., Inflammation: the link between insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes, Trends Immunol., 2004, vol. 25, no. 1, p. 4.
Lalles, J.P., Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: novel functions and protective effects, Nutr. Rev., 2014, vol. 72, no. 2, p. 82.
Efimtseva, E.A. and Chelpanova, T.I., Alkaline phosphatase: involvement into the detoxification of bacterial endotoxin, Usp. Sovrem. Biol., 2015, vol. 135, no. 3, p. 279.
Conceição de Oliveira, M., Sichieri R.,and Sanchez Moura A., Weight loss associated with a daily intake of three apples or three pears among overweight women, Nutrition, 2003, vol. 19, no. 3, p. 253.
Backhed, F., Ding, H., Wang, T., et al., The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2004, vol. 101, no. 44, p. 15718.
Turnbaugh, P.J., Ley, R.E., Mahowald, M.A., et al., An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest, Nature, 2006, vol. 444, no. 7122, p. 1027.
Shen, J., Obin, M.S., and Zhao, L., The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance, Mol. Aspects Med., 2013, vol. 34, no. 1, p. 39.
Koustos, A., Tuohy, K.M., and Lovegrove, J.A., Apples and cardiovascular health—is the gut microbiota a core consideration? Nutrients, 2015, vol. 7, no. 6, p. 3959.
López-Cepero, A.A. and Palacios, C., Association of the intestinal microbiota and obesity, P. R. Health Sci. J., 2015, vol. 34, no. 2, p. 60.
Dongowski, G., Lorenz, A., and Proll, J., The degree of methylation influences the degradation of pectin in intestinal tract of rats and in vitro, J. Nutr., 2002, vol. 132, no. 7, p. 1935.
Byrne, C.S., Chambers, E.S., Morrison, D.J., and Frost, G., The role of short chain fatty acids in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis, Int. J. Obes. (London), 2015, vol. 39, no. 9, p. 1331.
Lin, H.V., Frasseto, A., Rowalik, E.J., et al., Butyrate and propionate protect against diet-induced obesity and regulate gut hormones via free fatty acid receptor 3-independent mechanisms, PloS One, 2012, vol. 7, no. 4, p. e35240.
Chambers, E.S., Morrison, D.J., and Frost, G., Control of appetite and energy intake by SCFA: what are the potential underlying mechanisms? Proc. Nutr. Soc., 2015, vol. 74, no. 3, p. 328.
Arora, T., Sharma, R., and Frost, G., Propionate. Anti-obesity and satiety enhancing factor? Appetite, 2011, vol. 56, no. 2, p. 511.
Ríos-Covián, D., Ruas-Madiedo, P., Margolles, A., et al., Intestinal short chain fatty acids and their link with diet and human health, Front. Microbiol., 2016, vol. 7, p. 185.
This work was supported by the Program of Basic Research at the State Academies of Sciences for the Period from 2013 to 2020 (project no. AAAA-A17-117012310147-8).
Conflict of interests. The authors declare that they have no real or potential conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies involving animals or humans as subjects performed by any of the authors.
Translated by T. Tkacheva
About this article
Cite this article
Efimtseva, E.A., Chelpanova, T.I. Apples as a Source of Soluble and Insoluble Dietary Fibers: Effect of Dietary Fibers on Appetite. Hum Physiol 46, 224–234 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1134/S036211972002005X