Advertisement

Human Physiology

, Volume 43, Issue 5, pp 578–590 | Cite as

Gravity mechanisms in tonic motor system. Neurophysiological and muscle aspects

  • B. S. Shenkman
  • A. I. Grigoriev
  • I. B. Kozlovskaya
Reviews

Abstract

Nowadays it is widely believed that the animal motor system historically evolved under the powerful pressure of gravity forces. By the late 1970s, many manifestations of the microgravity effects on the motor system had already been known. At the same time, the basic sensorimotor relationships during exposure to zero-gravity remained unexplored. The article considers the main results of the studies of the scientific school of I.B. Kozlovskaya regarding the roles of the gravitational forces in the functioning of the tonic motor system in humans and other mammals. In these studies, it was demonstrated that the muscle tonic system is relatively independent and possesses its own structures and mechanisms at every level—from receptors to effectors. The support afferent input plays the main role in the regulation of the postural tonic system. The withdrawal of the support afferentation leads to the decline of the tonic motor units activity in extensor muscles and the alteration of the motor units recruitment patterns in the spinal cord. The decline of the tonic activity of the extensor motoneurons triggers on the development of the sensorimotor effects of microgravity including atony and muscle atrophy.

Keywords

tonic motor system gravity support afferentation muscle tone muscle stiffness cytoskeleton plantar mechanical stimulation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Thornton, W., Work, exercise and space flight. II. Modification of adaptation by exercise, Proc. the 1986th Workshop on Exercise Prescription for Long-Duration Space Flight, Harris, B.A., Jr., and Stewart, D.F., Eds., Washington: Natl. Aeronaut. Space Admin., 1987, p. 9.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kakurin, L.I., Cherepakhin, M.A., and Pervushin, V.N., The influence of space flight factors on human muscle tone, Kosm. Biol. Med., 1971, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 63.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berry, Ch.A., Weightlessness, in Bioastronoutics Databook, Washington: Natl. Aeronaut. Space Admin., 1973, 2nd ed.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gurfinkel’, V.S., Pal’tsev, V.I., Fel’dman, A.G., and El’ner, A.M., Changes in some motor functions of a man after prolonged hypokinesia, in Problemy kosmicheskoi biologii (Space Biology), Moscow: Nauka, 1969, vol. 13, p. 148.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bryanov, I.I., Kozerenko, O.P., Kakurin, L.I., et al., Specific features of statokinetic reactions, in Kosmicheskie polity na korablyakh “Soyuz” (Space Flights on Soyuz Spacecrafts), Moscow: Nauka, 1976, p. 194.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Panov, A.G., Lobzin, V.S., and Belyankin, V.A., Changes in the functions of the nervous and muscular systems affected by prolonged hypodynamia, in Problemy kosmicheskoi biologii (Space Biology), Moscow: Nauka, 1969, vol. 13, p. 133.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cherepakhin, M.A., The influence of prolonged bed regime on muscle tone and proprioretseptive reflexes of a healthy man, Kosm. Biol. Med., 1968, no. 2, p. 43.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baker, Y., Nicogossian, A.E., Hoffler, I.W., et al., Changes in the Achilles tendon reflexes following Skylab missions, in Biomedical Results from Skylab, Houston, TX: NASA Johnson Space Center, 1977, p. 131.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hornick, J., Reschke, M., and Viller, E., The effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness on postural equilibrium, in Biomedical Results from Skylab, Houston, TX: NASA Johnson Space Center, 1977, p. 104.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bogdanov, V.A., Gurfinkel’, V.S., and Panfilov, V.E., Human movements in the conditions of lunar gravity, Kosm. Biol. Med., 1971, no. 2, p. 3.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kozlovskaya, I.B., Grigor’eva, L.S., and Gevlich, G.I., Comparative analysis of the effect of weightlessness and its models on the speed-strength properties and tone of human skeletal muscles, Kosm. Biol. Med., 1984, vol. 18, no. 6, p. 22.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kirenskaya, A.V., Kozlovskaya, I.B., and Sirota, M.G., Influence of immersion hypokinesia on the rhythmic activity of motor units of soleus muscle, Fiziol. Chel., 1986, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 617.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kozlovskaya, I.B., Dmitrieva, I., Grigorieva, L., et al., Gravitational mechanisms in the motor system. Studies in real and simulated weightlessness, in Stance and Motion, Gurfinkel, V.S., Ioffe, M.Ye., and Massion, J., Eds., New York: Plenum, 1988, p. 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hodgson, J.A., Riazansky, S.N., Goulet, C., et al., Rhesus leg muscle EMG activity during a foot pedal pressing task on Bion 11, J. Gravitational Physiol., 2000, vol. 7, no. 1, p. S87.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yuganov, E.M., Kas’yan, I.I., and Asyamolov, B.F., Bioelectrical activity of skeletal muscle affected by intermittent overloads and weightlessness, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Biol., 1963, no. 5, p. 746.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    De-Doncker, L., Kasri, M., Picquet, F., and Falempin, M., Physiologically adaptive changes of the L5 afferent neurogram and of the rat soleus EMG activity during 14 days of hind limb unloading and recovery, J. Exp. Biol., 2005, vol. 208, part 24, p. 4585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kawano, F., Nomura, T., Ishihara, A., et al., Afferent input-associated reduction of muscle activity in microgravity environment, Neuroscience, 2002, vol. 114, no. 4, p. 1133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alford, E.K., Roy, R.R., Hodgson, J.A., and Edgerton, V.R., Electromyography of rat soleus, medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior during hind limb suspension, Exp Neurol., 1987, vol. 96, no. 3, p. 635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Grigoriev, A.I., Kozlovskaya, I.B., and Shenkman, B.S., The role of supporting afferentation in the organization of the tonic muscular system, Ross. Fiziol. Zh. im. I.M. Sechenova, 2004, vol. 90, no. 5, p. 508.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shenkman, B.S., Podlubnaya, Z.A., Vikhlyantsev, I.M., Litvinova, K.S., Udaltsov, S.N., Nemirovskaya, T.L., Lemesheva, Yu.S., Mukhina, A.M., and Kozlovskaya, I.B., Contractile characteristics and sarcomeric cytoskeletal proteins of human soleus fibers in muscle unloading: Role of mechanical stimulation from the support surface, Biophysics, 2004, vol. 49, no. 5, p. 807–815.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ogneva, I.V., Shenkman, B.S., and Kozlovskaya, I.B., The contents of desmin and a-actinin-1 in the human soleus muscle after seven-day “dry” immersion, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 2011, vol. 436, no. 1, p. 20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shenkman, B.S., Nemirovskaya, T.L., Belozerova, I.N., et al., Effects of Ca2+-binding agent on unloaded rat soleus: muscle morphology and sarcomeric titin content, J. Gravitational Physiol., 2002, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 139.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mirzoev, T.M., Shenkman, B.S., Ushakov, I.B., and Ogneva, I.V., Desmin and a-actinin-2 content in rat soleus muscle in the dynamics of gravitational unloading and subsequent reloading, Dokl. Biochem. Biophys., 2012, vol. 444, no. 1, p. 144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ogneva, I.V., Ponomareva, E.V., Altaeva, E.G., et al., Mechanical properties of human soleus fibers after 7- day “dry” immersion. Effects of plantar support stimulation and high frequency electrical stimulation, Acta Astronaut., 2011, vol. 68, p. 1478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Petrova, I.O., Tyganov, S.A., Mirzoev, T.M., et al., Early reduction of rigidity of rat m. soleus during supporting discharge: inactivation of transverse bridges or calpain activation? Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 2017, (in press).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shenkman, B.S., Nemirovskaya, T.L., Cheglova, I.A., et al., Morphological characteristics of human m. vastus lateralis in nonsupportive environment, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 1999, vol. 364, no. 4, p. 563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shenkman, B.S., Belozerova, I.N., Nemirovskaya, T.L., et al., Dynamics of human muscle fibers atrophy under prolonged antiorthostatic hypokinesia, Aviakosm. Ekol. Med., 2000, no. 4, p. 18.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shenkman, B.S., Belozerova, I.N., Matveeva, O.A., et al., Plasticity of cellular and tissue structures of human m. soleus under prolonged hypokinesia, Biol. Membr., 2003, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 77.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kozlovskaya, I.B. and Kirenskaya, A.V., Mechanisms of disorders of the characteristics of fine movements in long-term hypokinesia, Neurosci. Behav. Physiol., 2004, vol. 34, no. 7, p. 747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Otelin, A.A., Mirkin, A.S., and Mashanskii, V.F., Tel’tse Fater–Pachini. Strukturno-funktsional’nye osobennosti (Vater–Pacini Corpuscle: Structural and Functional Features), Leningrad: Nauka, 1976.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Perrier, J.F., Lamotte D’Incamps, B., Kouchtir-Devanne, N., et al., Effects on peroneal motoneurons of cutaneous afferents activated by mechanical or electrical stimulations, J. Neurophysiol., 2000, vol. 83, no. 6, p. 3209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Perrier, J.F., Lamotte D’Incamps, B., Kouchtir-Devanne, N., et al., Cooperation of muscle and cutaneous afferents in the feedback of contraction to peroneal motoneurons, J. Neurophysiol., 2000, vol. 83, no. 6, p. 3201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hernandez, R., Korvo, U., Kozlovskaya, I.B., et al., The influence of a 7-day space flight on the structure and function of the propulsion system, Kosm. Biol. Aviakosm. Med., 1983, no. 2, p. 37.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Miller, T.F., Kozlovskaya, I.B., Sayenko, I.V., et al., Role of support afferentation in control of the tonic muscle activity, Acta Astronaut., 2007, vol. 60, p. 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Miller, T.F., Vinogradova, O.L., Kozlovskaya, I.B., et al., Influence of unsupportedness and stimulation of the support zones of the feet on the characteristics of transverse stiffness and electromyogram of the calf muscles in rest, Aviakosm. Ekol. Med., 2010, vol. 44, no. 6, p. 16.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Moukhina, A.M., Shenkman, B.S., Blottner, D., et al., Effects of support stimulation on human soleus fiber characteristics during exposure to “dry” immersion, J. Gravitational Physiol., 2004, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 137.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gasnikova, N.M., Markin, A.A., and Kozlovskaya, I.B., Serum creatine kinase levels and the number of sarcolemmal dystrophin disruptions in human skeletal muscle fibers under conditions of 7-day “dry” immersion, J. Gravitational Physiol., 2004, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 133.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. S. Shenkman
    • 1
  • A. I. Grigoriev
    • 1
  • I. B. Kozlovskaya
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biomedical ProblemsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations