This paper is based on a dissertation “Techniques for organizing shared access to distributed memory pages in cloud computing systems” defended at the Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute in 2017. The paper describes distributed page processing in Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) and compares it with other well-known processing methods. The comparison includes analysis of different architectures (including shared nothing, shared disk, and replication-based architectures) in terms of SQL query processing and asserts the soundness of the distributed page approach (also known as global cache fusion) to cloud database management systems (DBMSs). As a result of analyzing the global cache fusion approach, the main drawback of Oracle RAC systems—increasing queue problem—is revealed; it causes the impossibility to process queries once their rate exceeds a certain threshold inversely proportional to the packet delivery time between nodes. To eliminate the increasing queue problem when accessing distributed pages, a new access method is proposed that introduces an additional page state—unloading state—which improves the efficiency of distributed page processing by reducing the number of transfers between nodes during hot page processing. In addition to cloud DBMSs, the proposed method can also be used in other cloud systems with page-organized distributed memory architecture.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Gusev, E.I., Techniques of organizations shared access to distributed memory pages in cloud computing systems, Cand. Sci. (Tech.) Dissertation, Kiev: National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute,” 2017.
Kuznetsov, S.D. and Poskonin, A.V., NoSQL data management systems, Program. Comput. Software, 2014, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 323–332. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0361768814060152
Berndt, D.J., Lasa, R., and McCart, J., SiteWit Corporation: SQL or NoSQL? That is the question!, J. Inf. Technol. Educ. Discuss. Cases, 2012, pp. 14–15. https://doi.org/10.28945/3920
Burmistrov, A.V. and Belov, Y.S., Disadvantages of relational databases, Nauka Tekh. Obraz., 2015, no. 3, pp. 25–34.
Seleznev, K., From SQL to NoSQL and back again, Open Syst. DBMS, 2012, no. 2. https://www.osp.ru/os/2012/02/13014127. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Padhy, R.P., Patra, R.M., and Satapathy, S.C., RDBMS to NoSQL: Reviewing some next-generation non-relational databases, Int. J. Adv. Eng. Sci. Technol., 2011, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 15–30.
Mukhina, Y.R., NoSQL solutions of data management review, Upr. Sovrem. Sist., 2013, no. 1, pp. 68–73.
Weiss, R., Technical overview of the Oracle Exadata Database Machine and Exadata Storage Server, 2012. http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/exadata/exadata-technical-whitepaper-134575.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2018.
IBM documentation: DB2 pureScale feature road map. http://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/SSEPGG_11.1.0/com.ibm.db2.luw.licensing.doc/ doc/c0056030.html. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Rackspace support, Understanding the cloud computing stack: SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, 2013. https://support.rackspace.com/how-to/understanding-the-cloud-computing-stack-saas-paas-iaas. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Mell, P. and Grance, T., The NIST definition of cloud computing, National Institute of Science and Technology, 2011. https://www.nist.gov/sites/default/files/documents/itl/cloud/cloud-def-v15.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Butler, B., PaaS Primer: What is platform as a service and why does it matter?, Network World, 2013. https://www.networkworld.com/article/2163430/cloud-computing/paas-primer-what-is-platform-as-a-service-and-why-does-it-matter-.html. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Kadam, M., Jidge, P., Tambe, S., and Tayade, E., Cloud service based on database management system, Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl., 2014, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 303–306.
Oracle, Oracle infrastructure and platform cloud services security, 2016. https://cloud.oracle.com/opc/iaas/whitepapers/Oracle_Cloud_Security_Whitepaper.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2018.
EnterpriseDB Corporation, Achieving HIPAA compliance with Postgers Plus Cloud Database, 2015. https://www.enterprisedb.com/hipaa-compliance-postgres-plus-cloud-database. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Caspio, Online database software, Custom database applications. https://www.caspio.com. Accessed January 10, 2018.
ClearDB: The ultra reliable, geo distributed data services platform. http://w2.cleardb.net. Accessed January 10, 2018.
MariaDB, SkySQL makes highly available databases easy, with MariaDB Enterprise. https://mariadb.com/about-us/newsroom/press-releases/skysql-makes-highly-available-databases-easy-mariadb-enterprise. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Nikolayenko, A., Year of cloud DBMS, Open Syst. DBMS, 2013, no. 9. https://www.osp.ru/os/2013/09/13038286. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Wikipedia, Shared disk architecture. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shared_disk_architecture. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Wikipedia, Shared-nothing architecture. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shared_nothing_architecture. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Oracle, Parallel execution with Oracle Database 12c fundamentals, 2014. http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/bi-datawarehousing/twp-parallel-execution-fundamentals-133639.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Taniar, D., Leung, C.H.C., Rahayu, W., and Goel, S., High Performance Parallel Database Processing and Grid Databases, Wiley, 2008, pp. 289–320.
Bauer, M., Oracle8i Parallel Server concepts, Release 2 (8.1.6), no. A76968-01, 1999. https://docs.oracle.com/cd/A87860_01/doc/server.817/a76965.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Oracle, Oracle Active Data Guard: Real-time data protection and availability, 2015. http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/availability/active-data-guard-wp-12c-1896127.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Oracle, Oracle GoldenGate 12c: Real-time access to real-time information, 2015. http://www.oracle.com/us/products/middleware/data-integration/oracle-goldengate-realtime-access-2031152.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Chu, T., Top five reasons to choose SharePlexR over Oracle GoldenGate, 2011. http://www.dlt.com/sites/default/files/Quest-Shareplex-Whitepaper.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Percona XtraDB Cluster release 5.7.17-29.20 operations manual. https://learn.percona.com/download-percona-xtradb-cluster-5-7-manual. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Yan, X., Yang, J., and Fan, Q., An improved two-phase commit protocol adapted to the distributed real-time transactions, Przegl. Elektrotech., 2012, pp. 27–30.
Bernstein, P.A., Hadzilacos, V., and Goodman, N., Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems, Addison-Wesley, 1987, pp. 49–53.
Open Group Standard DRDA, Version 5, Vol. 3: Distributed Data Management (DDM) Architecture, pp. 831–832.
Gray, J. and Lamport, L., Consensus on transaction commit, 2005. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/publication/consensus-on-transaction-commit. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Mahmoud, H.A., Arora, V., Nawab, F., Agrawal, D., and El Abbadi, A., Maat: Effective and scalable coordination of distributed transactions in the cloud, Proc. VLDB Endowment, 2014, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 329–340.
Keidar, I. and Dolev, D., Increasing the resilience of distributed and replicated database systems, J. Comput. Syst. Sci., 1998, vol. 3, no. 57, pp. 309–324. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcss.1998.1566
MySQL 5.7 reference manual, MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5, and NDB Cluster 7.6. https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/mysql-cluster.html. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Das, S., Agarwal, S., Agrawal, D., and El Abbadi, A., ElasTraS: An elastic, scalable, and self-managing transactional database for the cloud, UCSB Computer Science Technical Report, pp. 1–14.
The Teradata scalability story, Teradata whitepaper, 2001. http://www3.cs.stonybrook.edu/~sas/courses/cse532/fall01/teradata.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Gridscale database virtualization software, Technical whitepaper, 2008. http://www.tech-21.com.hk/download/Gridscale_Technical_White_Paper.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Michalewicz, M., Clouse, B., and McHugh, J., Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), 2013. http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/clustering/rac-wp-12c-1896129.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Kuznetsov, S.D., Transactional massive-parallel DBMSs: A new wave, Tr. Inst. Sistemnogo Program. Ross. Akad. Nauk (Proc. Inst. Syst. Program. Russ. Acad. Sci.), 2011, vol. 20, pp. 189–251.
Stonebraker, M., Madden, S., Abadi, D.J., Harizopoulos, S., Hachem, N., and Helland, P., The end of an architectural era (It’s time for a complete rewrite), Proc. VLDB, 2007, pp. 1150–1160.
Boichenko, A.V., Rogojin, D.K., and Korneev, D.G., Algorithm for dynamic scaling relational database in clouds, Ekon. Stat. Inf., 2014, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 461–465.
Chistov, V.A. and Lukyanchenko, A.V., Automation of scaling high loaded MySQL databases, Sovrem. Naukoemkie Tekhnol., 2016, pp. 315–319.
Gorobets, V.V., Mathematical models and algorithms for optimizing the distribution of transaction system data, Cand. Sci. (Tech.) Dissertation, Novocherkassk: Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University, 2015.
Zernov, A.S. and Ozhiganov, A.A., Horizontal scaling of database using consistent hashing, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Priborostr., 2017, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 234–238.
Costa, C.H., Vianney, J., Maia, P., and Oliveira, F.C.M.B., Sharding by hash partitioning: A database scalability pattern to achieve evenly sharded database clusters, Proc. 17th Int. Conf. Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS), Barcelona, 2015. https://doi.org/10.5220/0005376203130320
Gusev, E.I., Implementation sphere researching of distributed transaction nonblocking commit algorithm, Visn. NTUU KPI Inf. Oper. Comput. Sci., 2012, no. 57, pp. 76–80.
Wikipedia, InfiniBand. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InfiniBand. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Gusev, E.I., Optimization of access to distributed pages in a cloud computing systems based on shared everything architecture using unload queue method, Probl. Inf. Upr., 2015, vol. 4, no. 52, pp.17–21.
Translated by Yu. Kornienko
About this article
Cite this article
Gusev, E.I. Optimizing Access to Memory Pages in Software-Implemented Global Page Cache Systems. Program Comput Soft 45, 497–505 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0361768819080085