Improved phase unwrapping algorithm based on NVIDIA CUDA

Abstract

The paper presents an improved version of the region-growing algorithm for the interferometric phase unwrapping of the radar images. A method for packing/unpacking indices of points in a photograph that is based on bitwise operations is developed. A fast algorithm for generating a growth ring of target pixels and an algorithm for merging regions are created. Software implementation of the algorithm can be run on platforms using graphics devices that support the NVIDIA CUDA technology.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Elizavetin, I.V., Shuvalov, R.I., and Bush, V.A., Principles and methods of radar surveying to construct a digital map of an area, Geodez. Kartograf., 2009, no. 1, pp. 39–45.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Rosen, P., et al., Synthetic aperture radar interferometry, Proc. of the IEEE, 2000, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 333–382.

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Ferretti, A., Monti-Guarnieri, A., Prati, C., Rocca, F., and Massonnet, D., InSAR principles: Guidelines for SAR interferometry processing and interpretation, ESA Publications, 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Martinez-Espla, J.J., Martinez-Marin, T., and Lopez-Sanchez, J.M., Using a grid-based filter to solve InSAR phase unwrapping, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., 2008, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 147–151.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Xu, W. and Cumming, I., A region-growing algorithm for InSAR phase unwrapping, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 1999, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 124–134.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Costantini, M., A novel phase unwrapping method based on network programming, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 1998, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 273–281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Huadong Hao1, Guolin Liu, Xianlei Chen1, and Zhentan Cao, InSAR Kalman filter phase unwrapping algorithm based on SRTM DEM, J. Earth Sci. Eng., 2012, vol. 2, pp. 247–252.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Haifeng, Huang., A fast multi-baseline and multi-frequency band phase-unwrapping algorithm, Measurement, 2014, vol. 49, pp. 401–406.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Perhaad Mistry, Sherman Braganza, David Kaeli, and Miriam Leeser, Accelerating phase unwrapping and affine transformations for optical quadrature microscopy using CUDA, Proc. of 2nd Workshop on General Purpose Processing on Graphics Processing Units, GPGPU 2009, Washington, DC, 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Karasev, P.A., Campbell, D.P., and Richards, M.A., Obtaining a 35x speedup in 2D phase unwrapping using commodity graphics processors, Radar Conf., 2007, pp. 574–578.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Bamler, R. and Hartl, P., Synthetic aperture radar interferometry, Inverse Problems, 1998, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. R1—R54.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Soni, N.K., Phase unwrapping algorithm using edge detection and statistical cost functions, Master thesis (Civil Engineering and Geosciences), 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    SARscape Guide // Exelis ENVI Doc Center. PDF Guides. http://www.exelisvis.com/docs/pdf/sarscape_5.1_help.pdf

  14. 14.

    Jiang Ting-Chen, Ameliorative minimum cost flow algorithm for phase unwrapping, Procedia Environmental Sci., 2011, vol. 10, pp. 2560–2566.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Yan Jing-wen, Zhuo Lin, and Qu Xiao-bo, A new research on image fusion, J. Xiamen Univ. Technology, 2007, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 44–50.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Zhenhua Wu., Wenjing Ma, Guoping Long., and Yucheng, Li., High performance two-dimensional phase unwrapping on GPUs, Proc. of the 11th ACM Conf. on Computing Frontiers, CF '14, 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Phase Unwrapping and DEM Generation, ESA, Advanced Training Course in Land Remoting Sensing. http://earth.esa.int/landtraining07/D1LB4-Rocca.pdf.

  18. 18.

    Phase unwrapping overview, ROHAN Academic Computing. http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/rmellors/phase_unwrap_2008.ppt

  19. 19.

    Martinez-Espla, J.J., Martinez-Marin, T., and Lopez-Sanchez, J.V., An optimized algorithm for InSAR phase unwrapping based on particle filtering, matrix pencil, and region-growing techniques, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., 2009, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 835–839.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Martinez-Espla, J.J., Martinez-Marin, T., and Lopez-Sanchez, J.V., A particle filter approach for InSAR phase filtering and unwrapping, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 2009, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1197–1211.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Nico, G. and Fortuny, J., Using the matrix pencil method to solve phase unwrapping, IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, 2003, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 886–888.

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Bian, J. and Mercer, B., Weighted regularized preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) phase unwrapping method, J. Opt. A: Pure Applied Opt., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1—10.

  23. 23.

    Lee, J.-S., Papathanassiou, K.P., Ainsworth, T.L., Grunes, M.L., and Reigber, A., A new technique for noise filtering of SAR interferometric phase images, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 1998, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1456–1465.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Naresh Soni, Phase unwrapping algorithm using edge detection and statistical cost functions, MS Thesis (Geomatics), 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Sousaa, J.J., Hooperc, A.J., Hanssenc, R.F., Bastosd, L.C., and Ruize, A.M., Persistent scatterer InSAR: A comparison of methodologies based on a model of temporal deformation vs. spatial correlation selection criteria, Remote Sensing Environment, 2011, vol. 115, no. 10, pp. 2652–2663.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Sbas Tutorial. Sarmap tutorials. http://sarmap.ch/tutorials/sbas_tutorial_V_2_0.pdf.

  27. 27.

    Phase Unwrapping. http://www.racurs.ru/wiki/index.php/Phase_unwrapping.

  28. 28.

    Java—Multithreading. TutorialsPoint. Simply Easy Learning. http://www.tutorialspoint.com/java/java_-multithreading.htm.

  29. 29.

    CUDA C Programming Guide. NVIDIA DEVELOPER ZONE. http://docs.nvidia.com/cuda/cuda-cprogramming-guide/index.htmlbitwise-functions.

  30. 30.

    IDL Bridges. Exelis ENVI Doc Center. http://www.exelisvis.com/docs/IDL_Bridges.html.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. E. Popov.

Additional information

Original Russian Text © S.E. Popov, 2017, published in Programmirovanie, 2017, Vol. 43, No. 1.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Popov, S.E. Improved phase unwrapping algorithm based on NVIDIA CUDA. Program Comput Soft 43, 24–36 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0361768817010054

Download citation