Automatic construction and enrichment of informal ontologies: A survey
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The conceptualization of knowledge required for an efficient processing of textual data is usually represented as ontologies. Depending on the knowledge domain and tasks, different types of ontologies are constructed: formal ontologies, which involve axioms and detailed relations between concepts; taxonomies, which are hierarchically organized concepts; and informal ontologies, such as Internet encyclopedias created and maintained by user communities. Manual construction of ontologies is a time-consuming and costly process requiring the participation of experts; therefore, in recent years, there have appeared many systems that automate this process in a greater or lesser degree. This paper provides an overview of methods for automatic construction and enrichment of ontologies, with the focus being placed on informal ontologies.
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