Skip to main content

Flow Estimation in a Basin by Using a Hydrological Model: Application to the Basin of Wadi Djendjen (Jijel, North-East Algeria)


The aim of this study was to transform the rain into flow in the basin of Wadi Djendjen by using a simulation model in absence of the continuous measurements of the flow. The obtained results indicated and confirmed the strong adaptability of this model with varied hydroclimatic situations. The validation process showed an interesting result, which lead to conclude that the model is well calibrated and has a good performance to be used for the basins with Mediterranean climate. The obtained results for the simulation by the GR2M model over the studied period (1973–1986) showed that there no significant difference between the obtained value for the yearly average flow (197.70 hm3) and that measured at Missa hydrometric station (200.80 hm3), which allow us to estimate quantitatively the flow in Missa hydrometric station. While, for the period of 2000–2012, the results showed that the yearly average flow value (171.90 hm3), is significantly different (reduction of 15% for 12 years), in comparison with that measured at Missa hydrometric station (200.80 hm3). This can be due to the dryness which struck the region since 2000, and the local degradation of the forest ecosystem, which has considerably affected the runoff surface.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    Ajami, N.K., Gupta, H., Wagener, T., and Sorooshian, S., Calibration of a semi-distributed hydrologic model for streamflow estimation along a river system, J. Hydrol., 2004, vol. 298, pp. 112–135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Andréassian, V., Perrin, C., Michel, C., Usart-Sanchez, I., and Lavabre, J., Impact of imperfect rainfall knowledge on the efficiency and the parameters of watershed models, J. Hydrol., 2001, vol. 250, pp. 206–223.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Andrieu, H., French, M.N., Krajewski, W.F., and Georgakakos, K.P., Stochastic-dynamical rainfall simulation based on weather radar volume scans data, Adv. Water Resour., 2003, vol. 26, pp. 581–593.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Boufekane, A. and Saighi, O., Assessment of groundwater pollution by nitrates using intrinsic vulnerability methods: A case study of the Nil valley groundwater (Jijel, North-East Algeria), Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2013, vol. 7, pp. 949–960.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Boufekane, A. and Saighi, O., Effect of recharge and irrigation on the variation of nitrate in the groundwater of Wadi Djendjen (Jijel, North-East Algeria), J. Water Resour. Prot., 2013, vol. 5, pp. 972–977.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Bulygina, N., Mcintyre, N., and Wheater, H., Conditioning rainfall runoff model parameters for ungauged catchments and land management impacts analysis, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 2009, vol. 13, pp. 893–904.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Dezetter, A., Girard, S., Paturel, J.E., Mahé, G., Ardoin-Bardin, S., and Servat, E., Simulation of runoff in West Africa: Is there a single data–model combination that produces the best simulation results?, J. Hydrol., 2008, vol. 354, pp. 203–212.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Driouech, F., Mahé, G., Deque, M., Dieulin, C., El Heirech, T., Milano, M., Benabdelfadel, H., and Rouche, N., Evaluation d’impacts potentiels de changements climatiques sur l’hydrologie du basin versant de la Moulouya au Maroc, in Global Change: Facing Risks and Threats to Water Resources, Proc. of the 6th World FRIEND Conference, Fez, Morocco, IASH Publ., 2010, vol. 340, pp. 561–567.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Huard, D. and Mailhot, A., Calibration of hydrological model GR2M using Bayesian uncertainty analysis, Water Resour. Res., 2008, vol. 44, pp. 1029–2007.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Kabouya, M., Modélisation pluie-débit au pas de temps mensuel et annuel en Algérie Septentrionale, Ph.D. thesis, Orsay-Paris Sud, France, 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Kabouya, M. and Michel, C., Estimation des ressources en eau superficielle aux pas de temps mensuel et annuel, application à un pays semi-aride, Revue des Sciences de l’Eau, 1991, vol. 4, pp. 569–587.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Makhlouf, Z., Compléments sur le modèle pluie-débit GR4J et essai d’estimation de ses paramètres, Ph.D. thesis, Orsay-Paris Sud, France, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Makhlouf, Z. and Michel, C., A two-parameter monthly water balance model for French watersheds, J. Hydrol., 1994, vol. 162, pp. 299–318.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Milano, M., Les changements climatiques en méditerranée et les impacts prévisibles sur les ressources en eau, Master thesis, Université de Montpellier, 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Mouehli, S., Vers une chaîne cohérente de modèles pluie-débit conceptuels globaux aux pas de temps pluriannuel, annuel, mensuel et journalier, Ph.D. thesis, Engref, Cemagref Antony, Franc., 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Mouelhi, S., Michel, C., Perrin, C., and Andréassian, V., Linking stream flow to rainfall at the annual time step: the Manabe bucket model revisited, J. Hydrol., 2006, vol. 328, pp. 283–296.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Mouelhi, S., Michel, C., Perrin, C., and Andréassian, V., Stepwise development of two-parameter monthly water balance model, J. Hydrol., 2006, vol. 328, pp. 200–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Nash, J.E. and Sutcliffe, J.V., River flow forecasting through conceptual models. Part I-a. Discussion of principles, J. Hydrol., 1970, vol. 10, pp. 282–290.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Oudin, L., Perrin, C., Mathevet, T., Andréassian, V., and Michel, C., Impact of biased and randomly corrupted inputs on the efficiency and the parameters of watershed models, J. Hydrol., 2006, vol. 320, pp. 62–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Paturel, J.E., Ouedraogo, M., Mahé, G., Servat, E., Dezetter, A., and Ardoin, S., The influence of distributed input data on the hydrological modelling of monthly river flow regimes in West Africa, Hydrol. Sci. J., 2003, vol. 48, pp. 881–890.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Paturel, J.E., Ouedraogo, M., Servat, E., Mahé, G., Dezetter, A., and Boyer, J.F., The concept of rainfall and streamflow normals in West and central Africa in a context of climatic variability, Hydrol. Sci. J., 2003, vol. 48, pp. 125–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Perrin, C., Michel, C., and Andréassian, V., Modèles hydrologiques du Génie Rural (GR), Cemagref., 2007, 16 p.

  23. 23.

    Réménieras, G., L’hydrologie de l’ingénieur, Collection de la Direction des Etudes et Recherches d’Electricité de France, 1986, ED. Eyrolles.

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Sossou, S., Masseck, B., Badji Ansou, M., Edmond, N.M., Ansoumana, B., Kuruma, M., Mariko, A., Bamba, F., Dacosta, H., Malou, R., Barry, A., Kane A., Fall A.N., and Hamadoun, S., Calage et validation des modèles hydrologiques GR4J et GR2M sur le bassin du Bafing en amont de Bafing- Makana: vers l’étude de l’impact du climat sur les ressources en eau de la retenue de Manatali, Journées scientifiques du 2iE, 6éme édition, Ouagadougou, 2011.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Touazi, M. and Laborde, J.P., Modelling rainfall-discharge data at a mean annual scale in northern Algeria, Revue des Sci. de l’Eau, 2004, vol. 17, pp. 503–516.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Yapo, P.O., Gupta, H.V., and Sorooshian, S., Automatic calibration of conceptual rainfall-runoff models: sensitivity to calibration data, J. Hydrol., 1996, vol. 181, pp. 23–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Yu, P.S. and Yang, T.C., Using synthetic flow duration curves for rainfall-runoff model calibration at ungauged sites, Hydrol. Processes, 2000, vol. 14, pp. 117–133.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Zhou, M., Tian, F., Lall, U., and Hu, H., Insights from a joint analysis of Indian and Chinese monsoon rainfall data, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 2011, vol. 15, pp. 2709–2715.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Abdelmadjid Boufekane.

Additional information

The article is published in the original.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Boufekane, A., Saighi, O. Flow Estimation in a Basin by Using a Hydrological Model: Application to the Basin of Wadi Djendjen (Jijel, North-East Algeria). Water Resour 45, 523–531 (2018).

Download citation


  • rainfall
  • runoff
  • GR2M model
  • basin
  • Wadi Djendjen