Water Resources

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 427–436 | Cite as

Polar lakes of the World: Current data and status of investigations

  • S. V. Ryanzhin
  • D. A. Subetto
  • N. V. Kochkov
  • N. S. Akhmetova
  • N. V. Veinmeister
Water Resources and the Regime of Water Bodies


Current bathymetric and limnologic data on natural polar lakes of the World is discussed. The principal limnologic data on the largest polar lakes and also on the saline, cold amictic, and meromictic polar lakes are generalized. The geographic, “national”, and “administrative” distributions of polar lakes and also their distribution by the genesis of lake basins are analyzed. The distribution functions of polar lake areas and the regressions relating the water areas of lakes and the storages of lakes are calculated. The total water area and storage of polar lakes are estimated. The study is based on published data for 1432 Arctic and 174 Antarctic lakes, which are collected in the authors’ WORLDLAKE database. Attention is called to the inadequate knowledge of polar lakes.


lakes polar lakes databases morphometry of lakes 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adamenko, V.N., Geografiya ozer Taimyra (Geography of Taimyr Lakes), Leningrad: Nauka, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Are, F.E., Kononova, R.S., and Tolstikhin, O.N., Ozera kriolitovoi zony Sibiri (Lakes of Siberian Permafrost Zone), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1974.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Govorukha, L.S. and Simonov, I.M., Some Results of Limnological Studies in Franz Joseph Land, Izv. VGO, 1965, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 169–175.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Goldina, L.P., Geografiya ozer Bol’shezemel’skoi tundry (Geography of Bol’shezemel’skaya Tundra), Leningrad: Nauka, 1972.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Drabkova, V.G. and Trifonova, I.S., Osobennosti ekosistem vysokoshirotnykh ozer (Specific Features of Ecosystems of High-Latitude Lakes), St. Petersburg: Nauka, 1994.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kalesnik, S.V., Osnovy obshchego zemlevedeniya (of General Geoscience Principles), Moscow: Minpros, 1955.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ryanzhin, S.V., Global Statistical Estimates of Geothermal Flux in Bottom Deposits of World Lakes, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 1992, vol. 324, no. 3, pp. 562–566.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ryanzhin, S.V., New Estimates for Global Surface Area and Storage of Natural World Lakes, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 2005, vol. 401, no. 2, pp. 253–257 [Dokl. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 401, no. 2, pp. 253–257].Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ryanzhin, S.V., Subetto, D.A., Kochkov, N.V., and Veinmeister, N.A., Polar Lakes of the World: General Information and the State of Studies, in Noosferizm: arkticheskii vzglyad na ustoichivoe razvitie Rossii i chelovechestva v XXI veke (Noospherism: Arctic View on the Stable Development of Russia and the Humankind in the 21st Century), St. Petersburg: Asterion, 2007, vol. 2, pp. 125–140.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ryanzhin, S.V. and Ul’yanova, T.Yu., The World Lakes Geoinformation System (GIS WORDLAKE), Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 2000, vol. 370, no. 4, pp. 542–545 [Dokl. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 370, no. 4, pp. 214–217].Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alexander, V., Whalen, S.C., and Klingensmith, K.M., Nitrogen Cycling in Arctic Lakes and Ponds, Hydrobiologia, 1989, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 165–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Angino, E.E., Armitage, K.B., and Tash, J.C., Physicochemical Limnology of Lake Bonney, Antarctica, Limnol. Oceanogr., 1964, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 207–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bayly, I.A.E. and Eslake, D., Vertical Distributions of a Planktonic Harpacticoid and Calanoid (Copepoda) in a Meromictic Antarctic Lake, High Latitude Limnology, Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer, 1989, pp. 207–214.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boyum, A. and Kjensmo, J., Physiography of Lake Linnevatn, Western Spitsbergen, Verh. Intern. Verein. Limnol., 1978, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 609–614.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brewer, M.C., The Thermal Regime of an Arctic Lake, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 1958, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 278–284.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Coldman, C.R., Mason, D.T., and Hobbie, J.E., Variations in Photosynthesis in Two Shallow Antarctic Lakes, Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 1969, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 414–418.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Drago, E.C., Thermal Summer Characteristics of Lakes and Ponds on Deception Island, Antarctica, Hydrobiologia, 1989, vol. 184, nos. 1–2, pp. 51–60.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ferris, J.M., and Burton, H.R., The Annual Cycle of Heat Content and Mechanical Stability of Hypersaline Deep Lake, Vestfold Hills, Antarctica, Hydrobiologia, 1988, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. 115–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Henriksen, A., Lien, L., Rosseland, B.O., et al., Lake Acidification in Norway—Present and Predicted Fish Status, Ambio, 1989, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 314–321.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hutchinson, G.E. and Loffler, H., The Thermal Classification of Lakes, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1956, vol. 42, pp. 84–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kumke, T., Ksenofontova, M., Pestryakova, L., et al., Limnological Characteristics of Lakes in the Lowlands of Central Yakutia, Russia, J. Limnol., 2007, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 40–53.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lehner, B., and Doll, P., Development and Validation of a Global Database of Lakes, Reservoirs and Wetlands, J. Hydrology, 2004, vol. 296, pp. 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mannio, J., Raike, A., and Vuorenmaa, J., Finish Lake Survey 1995: Regional Characteristics of Lake Chemistry, Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 2000, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 362–367.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meybeck, M., Global Distribution of Lakes, Physics and Chemistry of Lakes, Berlin: Springer, 1995, pp. 1–25.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Skjelvale, B.L., Henriksen, A., Faafang, B., et al., Regional Lakes Survey in Norway-Autumn 1995. A Water Survey of the Water Chemistry of 1500 Lakes, Oslo: NIVA, 1997.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ryanzhin, S.V., Latitudinal-Altitude Interrelationships for the Surface Temperatures of the Northern Hemisphere Freshwater Lakes, Ecol. Modell., 1994, vol. 74, nos. 3–4, pp. 231–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ryanzhin, S.V., Size Distribution of World Lakes and Rivers Derived from WORLDLAKE database, 4th Intern. Lake Ladoga Symposium, Joensuu: Joensuun Yliopisto Publ., 2003, pp. 496–502.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ryanzhin, S.V., Global Statistics for Surface Area and Water Storage of Natural World Lakes, Verein Intern. Verhein Limnol., 2006, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 640–644.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ryanzhin, S.V. and Straskraba, M., Geographical Information System of the World Lakes (GIS WORLDLAKE) for Limnological Studies, SIL Newsletters, 1999, vol. 27, p. 10.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ryanzhin, S.V., Straskraba, M., and Geller, W., Developing WORLDLAKE-Database and GIS for Limnological Studies, Proc. 9th Intern. Confer. Conservation and Management of Lakes. Session 5, Otsu: ILEC/UNEP Publ., 2001, pp. 25–28.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Smith, L.C. and Sheng, Y., MacDonald G.M., and Hinzman, L.D., Disappearing Arctic lakes, Science, 2005, vol. 308, no. 5721, p. 1429.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. V. Ryanzhin
    • 1
  • D. A. Subetto
    • 2
  • N. V. Kochkov
    • 1
  • N. S. Akhmetova
    • 2
  • N. V. Veinmeister
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of LimnologyRussian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Russian State Pedagogical InstituteSt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.Russian State Hydrometeorological UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations