Development of combined granulation and encapsulation process in production of sodium percarbonate


A combined granulation and encapsulation procedure in the production of sodium percarbonate (SPC) has been developed that enables the stabilization of SPC to form a coating on the surface of product granules in one technological stage. The separation of the granulating and encapsulating agents during the drying process and formation of an encapsulating coating are performed due to large differences in the solubility of the components of initial solution. Sodium polyphosphate or oxyethylidenediphosphonic acid used as encapsulating agents with an initial solution concentration (1%) in the combined granulation and encapsulation process enables the preparation of encapsulated SPC, which is significantly more resistant to wet carbon dioxide than unencapsulated product.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Vol’nov, I.I. and Antonovsky, V.L., Peroksidnye proizvodnye i addukty karbonatov (Peroxide Derivatives and Adducts of Carbonates), Moscow: Nauka, 1985.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Zhubrikov, A.V., Development of a combined granulation and encapsulation process for the production of solid sources of active oxygen, Cand. Sci. (Chem.) Dissertation, Moscow: Mendeleev Univ. of Chemical Technology of Russia, 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Medvedev, A.G., Zhubrikov, A.V., Bobrov, D.A., Mikhaylov, A.A., Artemov, A.V., and Prikhodchenko, P.V., Promising method for evaluating the stability of solid forms of hydrogen peroxide, Voda: Khim. Ekol,, 2012, no. 3, p. 65.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Kozlov, A.I., Zharikov, L.K., Efremov, A.I., Klementiev, E.A., Nosov, N.A., Poroshin, Yu.A., and Lukonin, I.S., RF Patent 2240975, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Klassen, P.V. and Grishaev, I.G., Osnovy tekhniki granulirovaniya (Principles of Granulation Equipment), Moscow: Khimiya, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Klassen, P.V., Grishaev, I.G., and Shomin, I.P., Granulirovanie (Granulation), Moscow: Khimiya, 1991.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Vilesov, N.G., Skripko, V.Ya., Lomazov, V.L., and Tancheiko, I.M., Protsessy granulirovaniya v promyshlennosti (Granulation Processes in Industry), Kiev: Tekhnika, 1976.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Vinnikov, L.I., Granulirovanie poroshkoobraznykh khinicheskikh produktov (Granulation of Powder Chemicals), Moscow: NIITEKHIM, 1977.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Protiven’, L.A. and Romanova, E.P., Granulirovanie (Granulation), Moscow: NIITEKHIM, 1968.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Solodovnik, V.D., Mikrokapsulirovanie (Microencapsulation), Moscow: Khimiya, 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Yanush, A.V. Production of sodium percarbonate, in Tekhnologiya i avtomatizatsiya proizvodstv khimicheskoi promyshlennosti (Technology and Automation in the Chemical Industry), Khar’kov: NIIOKhIM, 1969, p. 181.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    US Patent 005902682A, 1999.

  13. 13.

    US Patent 20060014658A1, 1996.

  14. 14.

    US Patent 006413927B1, 2002.

  15. 15.

    US Patent 20030104967A, 2003.

  16. 16.

    RF Patent 2223910, 2004.

  17. 17.

    RF Patent 2142982, 1999.

  18. 18.

    US Patent 4135010, 1979.

  19. 19.

    Carrondo, M.A.A.F.C.T., Griffith, W.P., Jones, D.P., and Scapski, A.C., X-ray crystal structure of the industrial bleaching agent “Sodium percarbonate,” J. Chem. Soc., 1977, no. 23, p. 2323.

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Shumb, W.C., Satterfield, Ch.N., and Wentsworth, R.L., Hydrogen Peroxide, New York: Am. Chem. Soc., 1955.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Żegliński, J., Cabaj, A., Strankowski, M., Czerniak, J., and Haponiuk, J.T., Silica xerogel–hydrogen peroxide composites: Their morphology, stability, and antimicrobial activity, Colloids Surf., B, 2007, vol. 54, p. 165.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Wolanov, Y., Shurki, A., Prikhodchenko, P.V., Tripol’skaya, T.A., Novotortsev, V.M., Pedahzur, R., and Lev, O., Aqueous stability of alumina and silica perhydrate hydrogels: Experiments and computations, Dalton Trans., 2014, vol. 43, p. 16614.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Nemoshkalenko, V.V. and Aleshin, V.G., Elektronnaya spektroskopiya kristallov (Electronic Spectroscopy of Crystals), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1983, 2nd ed.

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Minachev, Kh.M., Antoshin, G.V., and Shpiro, E.S., Fotoelektronnaya spektroskopiya i ee primenenie v katalize (Photoelectron spectroscopy and its application in catalysis), Moscow: Nauka, 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Nefedov, V.I. and Cherepin, V.T., Fizicheskie metody issledovaniya poverkhnosti tverdykh tel (Physical Methods of Study of Solid Surfaces), Moscow: Nauka, 1983.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Nefedov, V.I., Rentgenoelektronnaya spektroskopiya khinicheskikh soedinenii (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Chemical Compounds), Moscow: Khimiya, 1984.

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Churakov A.V., Prikhodchenko P.V., Howard J.A.K., and Lev O., Glycine and L-serine crystalline perhydrates, Chem. Commun., 2009, no. 28, p. 4224.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Prikhodchenko, P.V., Medvedev, A.G., Tripol’skaya, T.A., Churakov, A.V., Wolanov, Y., Howard, J.A.K., and Lev, O., Crystal structures of natural amino acid perhydrates, Cryst. Eng. Commun., 2011, vol. 13, p. 2399.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Medvedev, A.G., Mikhaylov, A.A., Churakov, A.V., Prikhodchenko, P.V., and Lev, O., Ammonium and caesium carbonate peroxosolvates: Supramolecular networks formed by hydrogen bonds, Acta Crystallogr., Sect. C: Cryst. Struct. Commun., 2012, vol. 68, p. 20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Churakov, A.V., Medvedev, A.G., Mikhailov, A.A., Tripol’skaya, T.A., and Prikhodchenko, P.V., Crystal structure of ammonium siccinate peroxosolvate, J. Struct. Chem., 2014, vol. 55, no. 8, p. 1390.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Wolanov, Y., Prikhodchenko, P.V., Medvedev, A.G., Pedahzur, R., and Lev, O., Zinc dioxide nanoparticulates: A hydrogen peroxide source at moderate pH, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2013, vol. 47, no. 15, p. 8769.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Churakov, A.V., Prikhodchenko, P.V., and Howard, J.A.K., The preparation and crystal structures of novel perhydrates Ph4X+Hal–· nH2O2: Anionic hydrogen-bonded chains containing hydrogen peroxide, CrystEngComm, 2005, vol. 7, p. 664.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to P. V. Prikhodchenko.

Additional information

Original Russian Text © A.G. Medvedev, A.V. Zhubrikov, E.A. Melnik, I.V. Shabalova, A.A. Mikhailov, N.V. Khitrov, T.A. Tripolskaya, F.V. Grechnikov, V.M. Novotortsev, P.V. Prikhodchenko, 2016, published in Khimicheskaya Tekhnologiya, 2016, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 155–164.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Medvedev, A.G., Zhubrikov, A.V., Melnik, E.A. et al. Development of combined granulation and encapsulation process in production of sodium percarbonate. Theor Found Chem Eng 51, 515–522 (2017).

Download citation


  • granulation
  • encapsulation
  • sodium percarbonate
  • stabilization
  • sodium polyphosphate