It has been found that the pearl gourami Trichopodus leerii evaluates the quality of food objects (agar–agar pellets with standard size, shape, and color but having different composition) by touching them with their lips without using its long filamentous ventral fins. Orosensory testing is accompanied by repeated grasps−rejections−grasps of the pellets (up to 28 times). Such manipulations become significantly more frequent and the pellet is retained several times longer if the trial ends with ingestion rather than final refusal of the object by the fish. It has been found for the first time that pearl gourami produces clicking sounds while grasping the pellets. The number of sounds is directly related to the number of grasps of the object performed by the fish. Only two (alanine, serine) of 21 amino acids (L-isomers) were attractive to pearl gourami, another 13 acids turned out to be indifferent stimuli, and six acids had a repulsive taste. Pearl gourami was attracted to the taste of sucrose and Chironomidae larvae extract. The addition of citric acid, calcium chloride, and sodium chloride to the pellets did not influence their consumption by the fish. The more attractive the substances contained by the pellets, the longer time is spent by the fish on orosensory testing of the pellet quality.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Amorim, M.C.P. and Hawkins, A.D, Growling for food: acoustic emission during competitive feeding of the streaked gurnard, J. Fish Biol., 2000, vol. 57, pp. 895–907.
Amorim, M.C.P., Stratoudakis, Y., and Hawkins, A.D, Sound production during competitive feeding in the grey gurnard, J. Fish Biol., 2004, vol. 65, pp. 182–194.
Anholt, B.R. and Werner, E.E, Interaction between food availability and predation mortality mediated by adaptive behavior, Ecology, 1995, vol. 76, pp. 2230–2234.
Atema, J., Chemical senses, chemical signals and feeding behavior in fish, in Fish Behavior and its Use in the Capture and Culture of Fishes, Bardach, J.E., Eds., Manila: Int. Center Living Aquat. Resour. Manage., 1980, pp. 57–101.
Axelrod, H.R. and Vorderwinkler, W., Encyclopedia of Tropical Fishes with Special Emphasis on Techniques of Breeding, Neptune City: T.F.H., 1995.
Bruton, M.N, The food and feeding behavior of Clarias gariepinus (Pisces, Clariidae) in Lake Sibaya, South Africa, with its emphasis on its role as a predator of cichlids, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 1979, vol. 35, pp. 47–114.
Daugherty, J. and Marshall, J.A, The sound producing mechanism of the croaking gurami, Trichopsis vittatus (Pisces, Belontiidae), Am. Zool., 1976, vol. 11, pp. 227–244.
Devitsina, G.V, Comparative morphology of intraoral taste apparatus in fish, J. Ichthyol., 2005, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 286–306.
Eklöv, P. and Halvarsson, C, The trade-off between foraging activity and predation risk for Rana temporaria in different food environments, Can. J. Zool., 2000, vol. 78, pp. 734–739.
Forselius, S, Studies of anabantid fishes, Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala, 1957, vol. 32, pp. 93–597.
Henglmüller, S.M. and Ladich, F, Development of agonistic behavior and vocalization in croaking guramis, J. Fish Biol., 1999, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 380–395.
Il’in, M.N. and Rass, T.S., Suborder Anabantoidei, in Zhizn’ zhivotnykh. Tom 4. Ryby (Life of Animals, Vol. 4: Fishes), Rass, T.S., Ed., Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1971, pp. 551–553.
Jafari Shamushaki, V.A., Abtahi, B., Kasumyan, A.O., Abedian Kenari, A., and Ghorbani, R, Taste attractiveness of free amino acids for juveniles of Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus, J. Ichthyol., 2008, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 124–133.
Johansen, K., Air breathing in fishes, in Fish Physiology, Vol. 4: The Nerves System, Circulation and Respiration, Hoar, W.S. and Randall, D.J., Eds., New York: Academic, 1970, pp. 361–411.
Kasumyan, A.O, Acoustic signaling in fish, J. Ichthyol., 2009, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 963–1020.
Kasumyan, A.O, Tactile reception and behavior of fish, J. Ichthyol., 2011, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 1035–1103.
Kasumyan, A.O. Behavior and gustatory reception of airbreathing catfishes (Clariidae), J. Ichthyol., 2014, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 934–943.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Døving, K.B, Taste preferences in fish, Fish Fish., 2003, vol. 4, pp. 289–347.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Marusov, E.A, Behavioral responses of intact and chronically anosmiated minnows Phoxinus phoxinus (Cyprinidae) to free amino acids, J. Ichthyol., 2003, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 528–538.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Marusov, E.A, Chemoorientation in the feeding behavior of the blind Mexican cavefish Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Teleostei), Russ. J. Ecol., 2015, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 559–563.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Marusov, E.A, Selective feeding in fish: effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural odors, Biol. Bull. Rev., 2016, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 70–83.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Mikhailova, E.S., Taste preferences and feeding behavior of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus of populations of basins of the Atlantic and Pacific ocenas J. Ichthyol., 2014, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 453–475.
Kasumyan, A.O., Mikhailova, E.S., and Marusov, E.A, Role of tactile sense and other sensory systems in control of feeding behavior in gourami of the genus Trichopodus, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 2014, vol. 454, no. 1, pp. 46–49.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Morsi, A.M.H, Taste sensitivity of common carp Cyprinus carpio to free amino acids and classical taste substances, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1996, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 386–399.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Morsi, A.M.H, Taste preference for classic taste substances in juveniles of the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae, Pisces) reared on various diets, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 1997, vol. 357, pp. 562–564.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Nikolaeva, E.V, Taste preference of Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes), J. Ichthyol., 1997, vol. 37, no. 5, p. 662.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Nikolaeva, E.V, Comparative analysis of taste preferences in fishes with different ecology and feeding, J. Ichthyol., 2002, vol. 42, suppl. 2, pp. 203–214.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Prokopova, O.M, Taste preferences and the dynamics of behavioral taste response in the tench Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae), J. Ichthyol., 2001, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 640–653.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Sidorov, S.S, Gustatory sensitivity of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta to general types of taste irritants and amino acids, Sensor. Sist., 1992, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 100–103.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Sidorov, S.S, Taste properties of free amino acids for the juveniles of Caspian salmon Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1994a, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 831–838.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Sidorov, S.S, Comparison of intraoral and extraoral taste responses to free amino acids in three species of sturgeons of the genus Acipenser, Biofizika, 1994b, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 526–529.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Sidorov, S.S., A comparative analysis of the taste responses of young salmon trout, Salmo trutta trutta, from populations of the Baltic and White seas, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 1995, vol. 343, no. 3, p. 289.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Sidorov, S.S, Taste sensitivity of the juveniles of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (Salmonidae), Vopr. Rybolov., 2001, no. 1, suppl. 1, pp. 121–126.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Sidorov, S.S, Taste preferences of chronically anosmiated fishes, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 2005, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 539–547.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Sidorov, S.S, Taste preferences and behavior of testing gustatory qualities of food in stone loach Barbatula barbatula (Balitoridae, Cypriniformes), J. Ichthyol., 2010, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 682–693.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Sidorov, S.S, Effects of the longterm anosmia combined with vision deprivation on the taste sensitivity and feeding behavior of the rainbow trout Parasalmo (=Oncorhynchus) mykiss, J. Ichthyol., 2012, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 109–119.
Kasumyan, A.O. and Tin’kova, T.V, Taste attractiveness of different hydrobionts for roach Rutilus rutilus, bitterling Rhodeus sericeus amarus, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, J. Ichthyol., 2013, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 499–508.
Kapoor, B.G., Evans, H.E., and Pevzner, R.A, The gustatory system in fish, Adv. Mar. Biol., 1975, vol. 13, pp. 53–108.
Kottelat, M. and Widjanarti, E, The fishes of Danau Sentarum National Park and the Kapuas Lakes Area, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia, Raffl. Bull. Zool. Suppl., 2005, vol. 13, pp. 139–173.
Ladich, F, Sound production by the dudgeon Gobio gobio L., a common European freshwater fish (Cyprinidae, Teleostei), J. Fish Biol., 1988, vol. 32, pp. 707–715.
Ladich, F, Females whisper briefly during sex: contextand sex-specific differences in sounds made by croaking gouramis, Anim. Behav., 2007, vol. 73, pp. 379–387.
Ladich, F., Brittinger, W., and Kratochvil, H, Significance of agonistic vocalization in the croaking gourami (Trichopsis vittatus, Teleostei), Ethology, 1992, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 307–314.
Makhlin, M.D., Suborder Anabantoidei, in Zhizn’ zhivotnykh. Tom 4. Ryby (Life of Animals, Vol. 4: Fishes), Rass, T.S., Ed., Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1984, pp. 467–470.
Mikhailova, E.S. and Kasumyan, A.O, Taste preferences and feeding behavior in nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) in three geographically distant populations, J. Ichthyol., 2015, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 679–701.
Milinski, M. and Heller, R, Influence of predator on the optimal foraging behavior of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.), Nature, 1978, vol. 275, pp. 642–644.
Moussa, T.A, Morphology of the accessory air-breathing organs of the teleost, Clarias lazera (C.and V.), J. Morphol., 1956, vol. 98, pp. 125–160.
Shamushaki, V.A.J., Abtahi, B., and Kasumyan, A.O, Olfactory and taste attractiveness of free amino acids for Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus: a comparison with other acipenserids, J. Appl. Ichthyol., 2011, vol. 27, pp. 241–245.
Whitear, M, Cell specialization and sensory function in fish epidermis, J. Zool. London, 1971, vol. 163, pp. 237–264.
Whitear, M., Solitary chemosensory cells, in Chemoreception in Fishes, Hara, T.J., Ed., London: Chapman Hall, 1992, pp. 103–125.
Original Russian Text © M.I. Vinogradskaya, E.S. Mikhailova, A.O. Kasumyan, 2017, published in Voprosy Ikhtiologii, 2017, Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 324–337.
About this article
Cite this article
Vinogradskaya, M.I., Mikhailova, E.S. & Kasumyan, A.O. Taste preferences, orosensory food testing, and sound production during feeding by the pearl gourami Trichopodus leerii (Osphronemidae). J. Ichthyol. 57, 445–457 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0032945217030122