Production, maturity, reproductive cycle and fecundity of small-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhinidae) from the northern coast of Tunisia (Central Mediterranean)

Abstract

Small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758) is confronted since 2000 to a drastic decline of captures in Tunisian northern areas where it formerly was quantitatively and qualitatively very abundant. A study conducted in the area showed that males and females sexually matured between 400–478 mm and 364–471 mm total length (TL), respectively. The largest male and female were 521 mm and 531 mm TL, respectively and weighed 449 and 445.5 g, respectively. There was a not significant relationship total mass vs. TL between males and females. Conversely, the relationship of liver mass vs. TL significantly differed between sexes. Both HSI and GSI values did not present significant differences between males and females. There was a not significant relationship total mass vs. TL between males and females. Both male and female HSI reached high values in adults, significantly higher than those of sub-adults. Both male and female GSI values increased with TL of specimens; additionally, they showed significant differences between juveniles and sub-adults and also between sub-adults and adults. The OSI values were significantly different between juvenile and sub-adult females, and also between sub-adult and adult females. Monthly mean values of adult male and female HSI did not significantly vary throughout the year. Significant monthly changes were recorded in mean values of adult male however no significant changes were observed in monthly mean of GSI and OSI for adult females. Vitellogenic activity and production of egg cases permanently occurred throughout the year. The diameter of largest yolky oocytes ranged from 20.1 to 23.0 (mean = 21.43 ± 1.07) and weighed from 0.64 to 0.90 g (mean = 0.78 ± 0.09). Some measurements were taken on egg cases: length with horns ranged 42.5-55.7 mm with mean = 48.9 ± 2.9, width ranged 13.6–19.7 mm with mean = 16.50 ± 0.9, while the total mass of complete egg case ranged between 1.8 and 4.6 g, with mean = 2.4 ± 0.4. An annual fecundity estimation based on production of egg cases and oocytes during one year counted in adult females, enabled us to consider it between 40 and 240.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Aldebert, Y., Demersal resources of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). Impact of exploitation of fish diversity, Vie Milieu, 1997, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 275–284.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Anonymous, Annuaire des statistiques des produits de la pêche en Tunisie, Direction Générale à la Pêche et à l’Aquaculture (DGPA), Ministère de l’Agriculture, 2010.

  3. Arka Erdogan, Z., Torku Koç, H., Türker Çakir, D., et al., Sexual dimorphism in the small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula (L., 1758), from the Edremit Bay (Turkey), Ann. Ser. Hist. Nat., 2004, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 165–170.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Baldridge, H.D., Jr., Sinking factors and average densities of Florida sharks as function of liver buoyancy, Copeia, 1970, no. 4, pp. 744–754.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Baldridge, H.D., Jr., Accumulation and function of liver oil in Florida sharks, Copeia, 1972, no. 2, pp. 306–325.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Ben Othman, S., Observations hydrologiques, dragages et chalutages dans le sud-est tunisien, Bull. Inst. Océanogr. Pêche, Salammbô, 1971, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 103–120.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Blache, J., Cadenat, J., and Stauch, A., Clé de détermination des poissons de mer signalés dans l’Atlantique oriental (entre le 20ième parallèle N et le 15ième parallèe S), Faune Trop., 1970, ORSTOM, vol. 18, pp. 1–479.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bourgois, F. and Farina L., Les essais de chalutage au large des côtes tunisiennes, Rapport EPTA, 1910, FAO, 1961.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Braccini, J.M. and Chiaramonte, G.E., Reproductive biology of Psammobatis extenta, J. Fish. Biol., 2002, vol. 61, pp. 272–288. doi: 10.1111/j.1085-8649.2002.tb01752.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Brada-, M.N., Diversité du peuplement icthyque et contribution à la connaissance des sparidae du golfe de Gabès, Thesis, Univ. Sfax, Tunisia, 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bradaï, M.N., Quignard, J.P., Bouain, A., et al., Ichtyofaune autochtone et exotique des côtes tunisiennes: Recensement et biogéographie, Cybium, 2004, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 315–328.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Capapé, C., Contribution à la biologie des Scyliorhinidæ des côtes tunisiennes. I. Scyliorhinus canicula (Linné, 1758): répartition géographique et bathymétrique, sexualité, reproduction, fécondité, Bull. Off. Natl. Pêch. Tunisie, 1977, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 83–101.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Capapé, C., Contribution à la biologie des Scyliorhinidæ des côtes tunisiennes. II. Scyliorhinus canicula Linné, 1758: régime alimentaire, Ann. Inst. Michel Pacha, 1974, vol. 7, pp. 13–29.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Capapé, C., Etude morphologique de la ceinture pelvienne et des ptérygopodes de Scyliorhinus canicula (Linné, 1758) et de Scyliorhinus stellaris (Linné, 1758) (Pisces, Pleurotremata, Scyliorhinidæ) des côtes tunisienne, Bull. Off. Natl. Pêch. Tunisie, 1981, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 164–173.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Capapé, C. and Zahnd, J.P., Cas d’hermaphrodisme chez Scyliorhinus canicula (Linné, 1758), Bull. Inst. Natl. Sci. Tech. Océanogr. Pêche, Salammb-, 1974, vol. 3, nos. 1–4, pp. 131–137.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Capapé, C., Quignard, J.-P., and Mellinger, J., Reproduction and development of two angel sharks, Squatina squatina and S. oculata (Pisces: Squatinidæ), off Tunisian coasts: semi-delayed vitellogenesis, lack of egg-capsules and lecithotrophy, J. Fish Biol., 1990, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 347–356. doi: 10.1111/j.1085-8649.1990.tb05865.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Capapé, C., Tomasini, J.A., and Bouchereau, J.L., Observations sur la biologie de reproduction de la petite roussette, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnæus, 1758) (Pisces, Scyliorhinidæ) du golfe du Lion (France méridionale), Ichtyophysiol. Acta, 1991, vol. 13, pp. 87–109.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Capapé, C., Tomasini, J.A., and Quignard, J.-P., Les Elasmobranches Pleurotrêmes de la côte du Languedoc (France méridionale, Méditerranée septentrionale). Observations biologiques et démographiques, Vie Milieu, 2000, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 123–133.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Capapé, C., Guélorget, O., Reynaud, C., et al., Effects of reproductive factors on interrelationships among three deep water sharks from northern Tunisia (Central Mediterranean), Ann. Ser. Hist. Nat., 2003, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 109–120.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Capapé, C., Guélorget, O., Siau, Y., et al., Reproductive biology of the Thornback Ray Raja clavata L., 1758, (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae) from the coast of Languedoc (Southern France, Northern Mediterranean), Vie Milieu, 2007, vol. 57, nos. 1–2, pp. 83–90.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Capapé, C., Vergne, Y., Reynaud, C., et al., Fecundity and occurrence of the smallspotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhinidae) off the Languedocian coast (southern France, north-western Mediterranean), Vie Milieu, 2008a, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 47–55.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Capapé, C., Reynaud, C., Vergne, Y., and Quignard, J.-P., Biological observations on the smallspotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhindae) off the Languedocian voast (southern France, northern Mediterranean), Pan-Amer. J. Aquat. Sci., 2008b, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 282–289.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Castany, G., Le Haut-Bassin Siculo-Tunisien. étude de morphologie et de géologie sous-marines, Bull. Stn. Océanogr. Salammbæ, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 3–12.

  24. Collenot, G., Etude biométrique de la croissance relative des ptérygopodes chez la roussette Scyliorhinus canicula L., Cah. Biol. Mar., 1969, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 309–329.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Colonello, J.H., Lucifora, L.O., and Massa, A.M., Reproduction of the angular angel shark (Squatina guggenheim): geographic differences, reproductive cycle, and sexual dimorphism, ICES J. Mar. Sci., 2007, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 131–140. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fs1012

    Google Scholar 

  26. Cortès, E., Incorporation uncertainty into demographic modeling: application to shark populations and their conservation, Conserv. Biol., 2002, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1048–1062. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.00423.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Coste, M., On the incubation of the eggs of the small spotted dogfish (Scyllium catulus), Ann. Mag. Nat. Histo, 1867, vol. 19, p. 227.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Craik, J.C.A., An annual cycle of vitellogenesis in the elasmobranch Scyliorhinus canicula, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK, 1978, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 719–726. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/50025311

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. D’Onghia, G., Matarrese, A., Tursi, A., and Sion, L., Observations on the depth distribution pattern of the smallspotted catshark in the North Aegean Sea, J. Fish Biol., 1995, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 421–426. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1997.tb01911.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Eales, N.B., The food of the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula L., J. Mar Biol. Assoc. UK, 1949, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 791–793. doi: 10.1017/S0025315400023584

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Ellis, J.R. and Schackley, S.E., The reproductive biology of Scyliorhinus canicula in the Bristol Channel, J. Fish Biol., 1997, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 361–372. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1997.tb01671.x

    Google Scholar 

  32. Fauré-Frémiet, E., Notes sur la biologie sexuelle de Scyliorhinus canicula, Bull. Biol. Fr. Belgique, 1942, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 244–249.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Ford, E.A., Contribution to our knowledge of the life-histories of the dogfishes landed at Plymouth, J. Mar Biol. Assoc. UK, 1921, vol. 12, no. 31, pp. 269–374. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002531540006305

    Google Scholar 

  34. Foulley, M.M. and Mellinger, J., Etude chronologique, structurale et biométrique de l’oeuf et de son développement chez la petite roussette (Scyliorhinus canicula) élevée en eau de mer artificielle, Reprod. Nutr. Dével., 1980, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1835–1848.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. García-Garrido, L., Muñoz-Chapuli, R., and De Andres, A.V., Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in Scyliorhinus canicula (L.) during sexual maturation, J. Fish Biol., 1990, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 499–509. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1990.03583.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Harris, J.E., A note on the breeding season sex-ratio and embryonic development of the dogfish Scylliorhinus canicula (L.), J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK, 1952, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 269–374. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.10177/S002531540005298x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Henderson, A.C. and Dunne, J.J., Food of the lesser-spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (L.) in Galway Bay, Irish Natural J., 1999, vol. 26, nos. 5–6, pp. 191–194.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Henderson, A.C., Mcilwain, J.L., Al-Oufi H.S., and Ambu-Ali, A., Reproductive biology of the milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus and the Bigeye Houndshark Iago omanenis in the coastal waters of Oman, J. Fish Biol., vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 1662–1678. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2006. 01011.x

  39. Holden, M.J., The fecundity of Raja clavata in British waters, J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer., 1975, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 110–118. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/36.2.106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Holden, M.J., Rout, D.W., and Humphreys, C.N., The rate of egg laying by three species of ray, J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer., 1971, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 335–339. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/33.3.335

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Kollmann, M., Van Gaver, F., and Timon-David, J., Le développement du foie et son rendement en huile chez Scyllium canicula L. dans leurs rapports avec l’état sexuel de l’animal, C. R. Soc. Biol., 1929, vol. 100, pp. 355–358.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Kousteni, V., Kontopoulou, M., and Megalofonou, P., Sexual maturity and fecundity of Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Aegean Sea, Mar. Biol. Res., 2010, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 390–398. doi: 10.1080/17451000903233771

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Leloup, J. and Olivereau, M., Données biométriques comparatives sur la Roussette (Scyllium canicula L.) de la Manche et de la Méditerranée, Vie Milieu, 1951, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 182–206.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Lloris, D. and Rucabado, R., Guide FAO d’Identification des Espèces Pour les Besoins de la Pêche. Guide d’Identification des Ressources Marines Vivantes Pour le Maroc, Rome: FAO, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Lombardi-Carlson, L.A., Cortés, E., Parsons, G.R., and Manire, C.A., Latitudinal variation in life-history traits of bonnethead sharks, Sphyrna tiburo (Carchariniformes: Sphyrnidae), from the Eastern Gulf of Mexico, Mar. Fresh. Res., 2003, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 875–883. doi: 10.1071/MF03023

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Lucifora, L.O., Menni, R.C., and Escalante, A.H., Reproduction, abundance and feeding habits of the broadnose sevengill shark Notorhynchus cepedianus in North Patagonia, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 2005, vol. 289, pp. 237–244.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Lyle, J.M., Food and feeding habits of the Lesser spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula (L.), in Isle of Man waters, J. Fish Biol., 1983, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 725–737. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1983.tb02949.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Magrabaña, E., Lucifora, L.O., and Massa, A.M., The reproductive ecology and abundance of Sympterygia bonapartii endemic to the south-west Atlantic, J. Fish Biol., 2002, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 951–967. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2002.tb02420.x

    Google Scholar 

  49. Maurin, C., Écologie ichthyologique des fonds chalutables atlantiques (de la Baie ibéro-marocaine à la Mauritanie) et de la Méditerranée occidentale, Rev. Trav. Inst. Pêches Marit., 1968, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 1–147.

    Google Scholar 

  50. McAuley, R.B., Simpfendorfer, C.A., Hyndes, G.A., and Lenanton, R.C.J., Distribution and reproductive biology of the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo), in Western Australian Waters, Mar. Fresh. Res., 2007, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 116–126. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF05234

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Mellinger, J., Egg-case diversity among dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula (L.): a study of egg-laying rate and nidamental gland secretory activity, J. Fish Biol., 1983, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 83–90. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1983.tb04728.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Mellinger, J., Wrisez, J., and Alluchon-Gérard, M.J., Caractères biométriques distinctifs de l’embryon et de ses annexes chez la roussette (Scyliorhinus canicula) de la Manche comparée à celle de la Méditerranée et détermination précise du stade d’éclosion, Cah. Biol. Mar., 1984, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 305–317.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Mellinger, J., Reproduction et développement des Chondrichthyens, Océanis, 1989, vol. 15, pp. 283–303.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Mnasri, N., Les élasmobranches de la Tunisie septentrionale: biodiversité et méthode d’approche de la production débarquée, PhD Dissertation, Univ. of Carthage, Tunisia, 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Mnasri, N., El Kamel, O., Boumaïza, M., et al., Food and feeding habits of the small-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhinidae) from the northern coast of Tunisia (central Mediterranean), Cah. Biol. Mar., 2012, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 139–150.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Muñoz-Chápuli, R., Éthologie de la reproduction chez quelques requins de l’Atlantique nord-est, Cybium, 1984, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Oddone, M.C. and Velasco, G., Relationship between liver weight, body size and reproductive activity in Atlantoraja cyclophora (Elasmobranchii/Rajidae/Arhynchobatinae) in oceanic waters off Riogrande do Sul, Brazil, Neotrop. Biol. Conserv., 2006, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 12–16.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Oddone, M.C., Mesa, A., and De Amorim, A.F., The egg capsule of Rioraja agassizi (Müller and Henle) (Elasmobranchii, Rajidae), endemic to the SW Atlantic, Pan-Amer. J. Aquat. Sci., 2006, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 41–43.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Oddone, M.C., Amorim, A.F., Mancini, P.L., et al., The reproductive biology and the cycle of Rioraja agassizi (Müller and Henle, 1841) (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae) in southeastern Brazil, SW Atlantic Ocean, Sci. Mar., 2007, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 593–604.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Oddone, M.C., and Vooren, C.M., Comprarative morphology and identification of egg capsules of skate species of the genera Atlantoraja Menni, 1972, Rioraja Whitley, 1939 and Sympterygia Müller and Henle, 1837, Arq. Cien. Mar. Fortaleza, 2008, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 5–13.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Oddone, M.C., Norbis, W., Mancini, P.L., and Amorim, A.F., Sexual development and reproductive cycle of Atlantoraja cyclophora (Regan 1903) (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae: Arhynchobatidae) in southeastern Brazil, Acta Adriat., 2008, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 73–87.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Olivereau, M. and Leloup, M., Variations du rapport hépato-somatique chez la roussette (Scyllium canicula L.) au cours du développement et de la reproduction, Vie Milieu, 1950, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 377–420.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Quéro, J.C., Porché, P., and Vayne, J.J., Guide des poissons de l’Atlantique européen. Les Guides du naturaliste, Lonay, Switzerland; Paris: Delachaux & Niestlé, 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Ragonese, S. and Jereb, P., Egg-case of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (L., 1758) from the Sicilian Channel (Mediterranean Sea), Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Médit., 1990, vol. 32, no. 1, p. 264.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Rodrìguez-Cabello, C., Velasco, F., and Olaso, I., Reproductive biology of Lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (L., 1758) in the Cantabrian Sea, Sci. Mar., 1998, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 187–191.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Rodrìguez-Cabello, C., Sanchez, F., and Olaso, I., Distribution patterns and sexual segregations of Scyliorhinus canicula (L., 1758) in the Cantabrian Sea, J. Fish Biol., 2007, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 1568–1586. doi: 10.1111/j.1085-8649.2007.01443.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Rossouw, G.J., Function of the liver and hepatic lipids of the lesser sand shark, Rhinobatos annulatus (Müller & Henle), Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part B, Comp. Biochem., 1987, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 785–790. doi: 10.1016/0305.0491(87)90225-2

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Sadovy, Y., The threat of fishing to highly fecund fshes, J. Fish Biol., 2001, vol. 59, Issue Suppl. sA, pp. 90–108. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2001.tb01381.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Schwartz, D., Méthodes Statistiques à l’Usage des Médecins et des Biologistes, Paris: Flammarion Editor, 1983.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Taleb Bendiab, A.A., Mouffok, S., and Boutiba, Z., Reproductive biology and growth of lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758) in western Algerian coasts (Chondrichthyes, Scyliorhinidae), Biodiver. J., 2012, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 41–48.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Zupanovic, S., Contribution à la connaissance des poissons de l’Adriatique, Acta Adriat., 1961, vol. 9, pp. 1–84.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. Capapé.

Additional information

The article is published in the original.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Capapé, C., Mnasri-Sioudi, N., El Kamel-Moutalibi, O. et al. Production, maturity, reproductive cycle and fecundity of small-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhinidae) from the northern coast of Tunisia (Central Mediterranean). J. Ichthyol. 54, 111–126 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0032945214010020

Download citation

Keywords

  • reproduction
  • relationships total length vs. total mass and liver mass
  • hepato
  • gonosomatic and oviduco somatic indexes
  • egg cases