Skip to main content

New data on biology of the pearlfish Maurolicus imperatorius (Sternopthychidae) from the Emperor Seamount Chain

Abstract

The pearlfish Maurolicus imperatorius occurs above seamounts of the Emperor Seamount Chain between 30°–40° N and 168°–176° E. It forms dense aggregations at the daytime in the upper mesopelagial above the ground and disperses in the dark period of the day in the surficial layer. Judged by maturation dynamics of gonads, the spawning of this species occurs from January until April with the maximum in March. Catches of this species are characterized by expressed seasonal dynamics of size composition. Juveniles appear in catches in the end of spring-the beginning of summer. The maximum recorded SL is 68 mm. Among large fish, females dominate. The part of females is maximum in winter and minimum in spring. The age of fish with AC 46–63 mm is 265–420 days. The growth rate is abruptly retarded at the fourth month of life when the length 40–45 mm is attained. Life duration of most fish does not exceed 1.5 years, though some specimens may attain the age of two years. It is supposed that the presence of another species—M. japonicus—on the Emperor Seamount Chain may result from passive transfer in the Kuroshio waters.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    M. J. Armstrong and R. M. Prosch, “Abundance and Distribution of the Mesopelagic Fish Maurolicus muelleri in the Southern Benguela System,” S. Afric. J. Mar. Sci. 10, 13–28 (1991).

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    V. E. Bekker, Myctophidae of the World Ocean (Nauka, Moscow, 1983) [in Russian].

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    V. A. Belyaev, Ecosystem of the Zone of the Kuroshio Current and Its Dynamics (Khabarovsk. Knizh. Izd-vo, Khabarovsk, 2003) [in Russian].

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    G. W. Boehlert, “Current-Topography Interactions at Mid-Ocean Seamounts and the Impact on Pelagic Ecosystems,” Geo-Journal 16, 45–52 (1988).

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    G. W. Boehlert, C. D. Wilson, and K. Mizuno, “Populations of the Sternoptychid Fish Maurolicus muelleri on Seamounts in the Central North Pacific,” Pacif. Sci. 48, 57–69 (1994).

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    L. V. Borkin and G. V. Grigor’ev, “On Finding Müller’s Pearlfish Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin) (Sternoptychidae) off New Land,” Vopr. Ikhtiol. 26(5), 857–859 (1986).

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    T. A. Clarke, “Distribution, Growth, and Reproduction of the Lightfish Maurolicus muelleri (Sternoptychidae) off South-East Australia,” Rep. CSIRO Mar. Lab. Res., No. 145, 1–10 (1982).

  8. 8.

    Commercial Fish of Russia, Vols. 1–2, Ed. by F. Gritsenko, A. N. Kotlyar, and B. N. Kotenev (VNIRO, Moscow, 2006) [in Russian].

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    P. Dalpadado and J. Gjosaeter, “Observations on Mesopelagic Fish from the Red Sea,” Mar. Biol. (Berlin) 96(2), 173–183 (1987).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    V. B. Darnitskii, V. A. Belyaev, and M. Yu. Kulikov, “Specific Features of Reproduction and Dispersal of Pearlfish and Other Hydrobionts of Tallasobathyal within the Northern Subtropical Gyre of the Pacific Ocean,” in Biological Resources of the Pacific Ocean (VNIRO, Moscow, 1991), pp. 183–190.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    S. Funakoshi, “Relationship Between Stock Levels and the Population Structure of the Japanese Anchovy,” Mar. Behav. Physiol. 21, 1–84 (1992).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    J. Giske and D. L. Aksnes, “Ontogeny, Season and Trade-Offs: Vertical Distribution of the Mesopelagic Fish Maurolicus muelleri,” Sarsia 77, 253–261 (1992).

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    J. Giske, D. L. Aksnes, B. M. Ballno, et al., “Vertical Distribution and Trophic Interactions of Zooplankton and Fish in Masfjorden, Norway,” Sarsia 75, 65–81 (1990).

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    J. Gjøsaeter, “Life History and Ecology of Maurolicus muelleri (Gonostomatidae) in Norwegian Waters,” Fiskeridir. Skr. Ser. Havunders 17(3), 109–131 (1981).

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    J. Gjøsaeter, “Primary Growth Increments in Otoliths of Six Tropical Myctophid Species,” Biol. Oceanogr. 4, 359–382 (1987).

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    J. Gjøsaeter and K. Kawaguchi, “A Review of the World Resources of Mesopelagic Fish,” FAO Fish. Techn. Pap., No. 193, 1–151 (1980).

  17. 17.

    M. S. Goodson, J. Giske, and R. Rosland, “Growth and Ovarian Development of Maurolicus muelleri During Spring,” Mar. Biol. (Berlin) 124(2), 186–195 (1995).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    J. Hirota and G. W. Boehlert, “Feeding of Maurolicus muelleri at Southeast Hancock Seamount and Its Effects on the Zooplankton Community,” Abstr. EOS. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 66, p. 1336 (1985).

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    H.-C. John and M. Kloppmann, “Ontogenetic Changes in the Vertical Distribution of Larval Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin, 1789),” Arch. Fischereiwiss. 39, 79–93 (1989).

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Yu. V. Kadil’nikov and A. S. Myskov, “On the Possibility of an Increase in the Efficiency of Fishing Zooplankton and Small Mesopelagic Fish,” in Commercial and Biological Studies of AtlantNIRO from 2004 to 2005 (AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, 2007), Vol. 1, pp. 114–122.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    E. P. Karedin, “Resources of Mesopelagic Fish in the Northern Part of the Pacific Ocean,” Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr. 124,Part 1, 391–416 (1998).

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    E. P. Karedin and B. N. Gagach, “Resources of Mesopelagic Fish in the Northern Part of the Pacific Ocean and the Problems of Their Use,” Available from TsNIITEIRKh, No. 1261px-94 (1994).

  23. 23.

    N. A. Krasil’nikova, “On Some Parameters of Optimal Exploitation of Müller’s Pearlfish (Maurolicus muelleri) in the Southeastern Atlantic,” in Abstracts of Papers of All-Union Conference on Reserve Food Biological Resources of the Open Ocean and Seas of the USSR, 1990 (Kaliningrad, 1990), pp. 110–111.

  24. 24.

    J. Kinzer and K. Schulz, “Vertical Distribution and Feeding Patterns of Midwater Fish in the Central Equatorial Atlantic. I. Myctophidae,” Mar. Biol. (Berlin) 85(3), 313–322 (1985).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    B. Kristoffersen and A. G. V. Salvanes, “Sexual Size Dimorphism and Sex Ratio in Müller’s Pearlside Maurolicus muelleri,” Mar. Biol. (Berlin) 138(6), 1087–1092 (2001).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    T. B. Linkowski, “Some Aspects of the Biology of Maurolicus muelleri (Sternoptychidae) from the South Atlantic,” ICES Coop. Res. Rep., No. 17, 1–21 (1983).

  27. 27.

    J. Mauchline and J. D. Gordon, “Diets of Clupeoid, Stomiatoid and Salmonoid Fish of the Rockall Trough, Northeastern Atlantic Ocean,” Mar. Biol. (Berlin) 77(1), 67–78 (1983).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    N. R. Merrett, “Biogeography and the Oceanic Rim: A Poorly Known Zone of Ichthyofaunal Interaction,” Pelagic Biogeography. UNESCO Techn. Pap. Mar. Sci., No. 49, 201–209 (1986).

  29. 29.

    Y. C. Melo and M. J. Armstrong, “Batch Spawning Behavior in Lightfish Maurolicus muelleri,” S. Afric. J. Mar. Sci. 10, 125–130 (1991).

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    V. A. Mukhacheva, “Geographical Distribution and Variation of Müller’s Pearlfish Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin) (Sternoptychidae, Osteichthyes),” in Fish of the Open Ocean (IOAN SSSR, Moscow, 1981), pp. 41–46.

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Yu. V. Novikov, “Some Regularities of Formation of Pelagic Ichthyocenosis in the Zone of the Kuroshio Current,” in Results of Study of Biological Resources of the Northwestern Part of the Pacific Ocean (TINRO, Vladivostok, 1989), pp. 5–20.

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    M. Okiyama, “Early Life History of the Gonostomatid Fish, Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin), in the Japan Sea,” Bull. Jpn. Sea. Reg. Fish. Res. Lab., No. 23, 21–53 (1971).

  33. 33.

    N. P. Pakhorukov, “Behavior and Distribution of Bottom and Near-Bottom Fish on the Emperor Seamount Chain (the Pacific Ocean),” Vopr. Ikhtiol. 45(1), 109–116 (2005) [J. Ichthyol. 45 (1), 103–110 (2005)].

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    N. V. Parin and S. G. Kobylyanskii, “Review of the Genus Maurolicus (Steroptychidae, Stomiiformes) with the Recovery of Validity of Five Species That Were Considered Synonyms of M. muelleri and Description of Nine New Species,” Tr. Inst. Okeanol. 128, 69–107 (1993).

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    N. V. Parin and S. G. Kobyliansky, “Diagnoses and Distribution of Fifteen Species Recognized in Genus Maurolicus cocco (Sternoptychidae, Stomiiformes) with a Key to Their Identification,” Cybium 20(2), 185–195 (1996).

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    R. M. Prosch, “Reproductive Biology and Spawning of the Myctophid Lampanyctodes hectoris and the Sternoptychid Maurolicus muelleri in the Southern Benguela Ecosystem,” S. Afric. J. Mar. Sci. 10, 241–252 (1991).

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    O. I. Rasmussen and J. Giske, “Life-History Parameters and Vertical Distribution of Maurolicus muelleri in Masfjorden in Summer,” Mar. Biol. (Berlin) 120(4), 649–664 (1994).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    D. A. Robertson, “Planktonic Stages of Maurolicus muelleri (Teleostei: Sternoptychidae) in New Zealand Waters,” N. Zealand J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 10(2), 311–328 (1976).

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    A. V. Rodin, “Results of Studies and Perspectives of Fishery of Mesopelagic Fish of the Indian and Pacific Oceans,” in Abstracts of Papers of All-Union Conference on Reserve Food Biological Resources of the Open Ocean and Seas of the USSR, 1990 (Kaliningrad, 1990), pp. 154–156.

  40. 40.

    A. G. V. Salvanes and B. M. Stockley, “Spatial Variation of Growth and Gonadal Developments of Maurolicus muelleri in the Norwegian Sea and in a Norwegian Fjord,” Mar. Biol. (Berlin) 126(2), 321–332 (1996).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    C. Sassa, K. Kawaguchi, T. Kinoshita, and C. Watanabe, “Assemblages of Vertical Migratory Mesopelagic Fish in the Transitional Region of the Western North Pacific,” Fish. Oceanogr. 11(4), 193–204 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    V. F. Savinykh, “Nekton Composition of Near-Surface Waters of the Subarctic from Zone in the Northwest Part of the Pacific Ocean According to the Data of Drift-Net Catches,” Vopr. Ikhtiol. 38(1), 22–32 (1998) [J. Ichthyol. 38 (1), 18–27 (1998)].

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    V. F. Savinykh, “Main Results of Studies of Pelagic Fish and Squids in the TINRO-Center,” Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr. 141, 146–172 (2005).

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    V. F. Savinykh and E. V. Yakush, “Bioresources of the Open Waters of the Pacific Ocean and Perspectives of Their Use by Fish Industry,” in Abstracts of Papers of International Conference on the Rational Use of Biological Resources of the World Ocean (VNIRO, Moscow, 2001), pp. 31–33.

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    V. A. Shelekhov, “Specific Features of Otolith Growth in Two Species of the Order Clupeiformes (Japanese Anchovy and Gizzard Shad) at the Larval Stage of Development,” Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz, Okeanogr. 127, 160–165 (2000).

    Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    V. A. Shelekhov, “Results of Otolith Microstucture Analysis, the Growth Rate, and Life Span of Diaphus theta (Myctophidae),” Vopr. Ikhtiol. 44(5), 661–668 (2004) [J. Ichthyol. 44 (8), 616–623 (2004)].

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Technochemical Properties of Small Pelagic Fish: Guide (VNIRO, Moscow, 1990), p. 73 [in Russian].

  48. 48.

    A. V. Vasilenko, Candidate’s Dissertation in Biology (TINRO, Vladivostok, 1990).

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    C. D. Wilson and G. W. Boehlert, “Interaction of Ocean Currents and Resident Micronekton at a Seamount in the Central North Pacific,” J. Mar. Syst. 50(1–2), 22–39 (2004).

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    J. W. Young and S. J. M. Blaber, “Feeding Ecology of the Three Species of Midwater Fishes Associated with the Continental Slope of Eastern Tasmania, Australia,” Mar. Biol. (Berlin) 93(1), 147–156 (1986).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Y. Yuuki, “Spawning and Maturation of a Sternoptychid Fish Maurolicus muelleri in the Southwestern Waters of the Sea of Japan,” Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 48(6), 749–753 (1982).

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Y. Yuuki, “Age and Growth of a Sternoptychid Fish Maurolicus muelleri in the Southwestern Waters of the Sea of Japan,” Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 50(1), 1849–1854 (1984).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. F. Savinykh.

Additional information

Original Russian Text © V.F. Savinykh, A.A. Baytalyuk, 2010, published in Voprosy Ikhtiologii, 2010, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 191–201.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Savinykh, V.F., Baytalyuk, A.A. New data on biology of the pearlfish Maurolicus imperatorius (Sternopthychidae) from the Emperor Seamount Chain. J. Ichthyol. 50, 148–158 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0032945210020025

Download citation

Key words

  • pearlfish
  • Maurolicus
  • distribution
  • size
  • spawning
  • otoliths
  • age
  • growth
  • diet