Structure of Quenched Ti–Ru Alloys
Quenched titanium–ruthenium alloys containing 0.25–4 at % ruthenium have been studied using X-ray diffraction analysis, optical metallography, transmission electron microscopy, and microhardness measurements. It has been found that, during the quenching of the alloys containing 0.25, 0.5, and 1 at % ruthenium, a polymorphic β → α transformation occurs with the formation of a two-phase (α + β) structure. In Ti–1.5 at % Ru and Ti–2 at % Ru alloys, a martensitic β → α″ transformation occurs. The quenched Ti–3 at % Ru alloy has a β + ω structure. The complete stabilization of the β phase takes place in the alloy with 4 at % ruthenium. In the electron-diffraction patterns of alloy containing 4 at % ruthenium, diffuse scattering that indicates the formation of ω-phase-related displacements in the locations of atoms has been observed.
KeywordsTi–Ru alloys structure α″ phase ω phase
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 5.V. N. Eremenko, T. D. Shtepa, and V. G. Sirotenko, “On the intermediate phases in titanium alloys with iridium, rhodium, and osmium,” Poroshk. Metall., No. 6, 68–72 (1966).Google Scholar
- 6.A. I. Antipov and V. N. Moiseev, “On the coefficient of stablization β of titanium alloys,” Metalloved. Term. Obrab. Met., No. 12, 2–5 (1997).Google Scholar
- 7.L. N. Guseva and L. K. Dolinskaya, “Metastable phases in titanium alloys with Group VIII elements quenched from the β field,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR. Met., No. 6, 195–202 (1974).Google Scholar
- 8.E. Raub and E. Roschel, “Die Legierungen des Rutheniums mit Titan und Zirconium,” Z. Metallkd. 54, 455–462 (1963).Google Scholar
- 9.L. N. Guseva, N. G. Boriskina, and L. K. Dolinskaya, “Metastable phases in titanium-rich Ti–Ru alloys,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Met., No. 3, 215–217 (1973).Google Scholar
- 10.N. G. Boriskina and I. I. Kornilov, “On the Ti–Ru phase diagram,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Met., No. 2, 214–217 (1976).Google Scholar
- 11.Phase Diagrams of Binary Metal Systems: A Handbook, Ed. by N.P. Lyakishev, Vol. 3, Book 2 (Mashinostroenie, Moscow, 1999) [in Russian].Google Scholar
- 12.I. I. Novikov, Theory of Heat Treatment (Metallurgiya, Moscow, 1974) [in Russian].Google Scholar
- 13.Yu. D. Tyapkin, “Electronography,” in Itogi nauki i tekhniki. Ser.: Metallovedenie i termicheskaya obrabotka, vol. 11 (VINITI, Moscow, 1977), pp. 152–214 [in Russian].Google Scholar
- 16.A. V. Dobromyslov and N. V. Kazantseva, “Phase Transformations in the Ti–Cu System,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 89, 467–473 (2000).Google Scholar
- 17.A. V. Dobromyslov, “Phase transformations and structure of titanium alloys,” in New promising materials and new technologies, Ed. by N. I. Noskova (UrO RAN, Ekaterinburg, 2001) [in Russian].Google Scholar
- 19.E. V. Collins, Physical Metallurgy of Titanium Alloys (Metallurgiya, Moscow, 1988) [in Russian].Google Scholar