Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Middle Miocene of the Stavropol Region, Russia


A caddisfly fauna from the Middle Miocene of the Stavropol Region (Vishnevaya Balka and Temnolesskaya localities) is described. The formal species Limnephilus kaspievi (Martynova, 1939) is redescribed based on new material, including the hind wings. New genera, Miocenocosmoecus (Limnephilidae) and Calamostavropolia (Calamoceratidae), and eight new species of fossil Trichoptera are described: Limnephilus parakaspievi, L. metakaspievi, L. valliculacerasinus, L. antiquastepposus, Potamophylax martynovorum, Halesus miocenicus, Miocenocosmoecus silvacaliginosus, and Calamostavropolia revolutionaria.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.


  1. 1

    Andrusov, N.I., Tubes of worms of the family Amphictenidae in the Russian Miocene, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. 6, 1916, no. 4, pp. 227–232.

  2. 2

    Bekker-Migdisova, E.E., Tertiary homopterans of the Stavropol Region, Tr. Paleontol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1964, vol. 54, pp. 1–108.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Belokrys, L.S., On Sarmatian pectinariids, Paleontol. Zh., 1967, no. 2, pp. 129–133.

  4. 4

    Carpenter, F.M., Insects from the Miocene (Latah) of Washington: Part 6. Trichoptera, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 1931, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 319–322.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Carpenter, F.M., Superclass Hexapoda, in Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology: Part R: Arthropoda., Kaesler, R.L., Brosius, E., Keim, J., and Priesner, J., Eds., Kansas: Geol. Soc. Am. Univ. Kansas Press, 1992, vol. 4.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Cockerell, T.D.A., Eocene insects from the Rocky Mountains, Proc. US Nat. Mus., 1920, vol. 57, pp. 233–260.

  7. 7

    De Moor, F. and Ivanov, V.D., Global diversity of caddisflies (Trichoptera: Insecta) in freshwater, Hydrobiologia, 2008, vol. 595, pp. 393–407.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Dlussky, G.M., Miocene ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the USSR, Tr. Paleontol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1981, vol. 183 (New Fossil Insects from the USSR), pp. 64–83.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Goncharova, I.A., Bivalve mollusks of the Tarkhanian and Chokrakian basins, Tr. Paleontol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1989, vol. 234, pp. 1–200.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Goncharova, I.A., Tarkhanian–Karaganian cycle (Miocene) of the development of the Eastern Paratethys: Correlation, hydrology, and paleobiogeography, Byull. Mosk. Ob-va Ispyt. Prir. Otd. Geol., 1991, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 81–84.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Holzenthal, R.W., Morse, J.C., and Kjer, K.M., Order Trichoptera Kirby, 1813, in Animal Biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness, Zhang, Z.-Q., Ed., Zootaxa, 2011, vol. 3148, pp. 209–211.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Ivanov, V.D., Melnitsky, S.I., and Perkovsky, E.E., Caddisflies from Cenozoic ambers of Europe, Paleontol. Zh., 2016, no. 5, pp. 53–61.

  13. 13

    Ivanov, V.D. and Melnitsky, S.I., The caddis fly fauna (Trichoptera) of Russia: On the centenary of exploration, Entomol. Rev. Washington, 2012, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 58–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Ivanov, V.D. and Melnitsky, S.I., New caddisflies species (Insecta: Trichoptera) from Cretaceous Taymyr amber, Cret. Res., 2017, vol. 77, pp. 124–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Lewis, S.E., A new species of fossil caddisfly (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) from the Ruby River Basin (Oligocene) of southwestern Montana, J. High Resolut. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Commun., 1973, vol. 66, no. 5, p. 1173.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Martynov, A.B., Prakticheskaya entomologiya (Practical Entomology), vol. 5: Rucheiniki (Caddisflies), Leningrad, 1924.

  17. 17

    Martynova, O.M., Miopsyche kaspievi sp. n., a new caddisfly species from the Miocene deposits of the Ordzhonikidze Region, Tr. Voroshil. Gos. Pedag. Inst., 1939, vol. 1, pp. 91–93.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Martynova, O.M., On the nature of tubes of Pectinariopsis Andr. (Trichoptera, non Polychaeta), Entomol. Obozr., 1947, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 152–153.

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Papp, A., Agglutinierende Polycheten aus dem oberen Miozen, Palaeobiologica, 1941, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 318–324

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Rhodendorf, B.B., On the Miocene entomofauna of Voroshilovsk, Priroda, 1939, no. 12, pp. 85–88.

  21. 21

    Ruiter, D.E., The adult Limnephilus Leach (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) of the New World, Bull. Ohio Biol. Surv. New Ser., 1995, vol. 11, no. 1, pp.1–200.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Sukatsheva, I.D., Historical development of the order of caddisflies, Tr. Paleontol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1982, vol. 197, pp. 1–112.

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Sukatsheva, I.D., Features of the caddisfly fauna (Trichoptera) from the Miocene of the Stavropol Region (in view of the data on other insect groups), in Problemy vodnoi entomologii Rossii: Materialy X (2) Trikhopterologicheskogo Simpoziuma (Materials of the X (2) Trichopterological Symposium on the Problems of Aquatic Entomology of Russia), Vladikavkaz, 2013, pp. 54–60.

  24. 24

    Sukatsheva, I.D., Fossil representatives of the family Phryganeidae (Insecta: Trichoptera), in Aktual’nye problemy ekologii i sokhraneniya bioraznoobraziya Rossii i sopredel’nykh stran. Materialy IX Vserossiiskoi Nauchnoi Konferentsii, Vladikavkaz, 27–30 aprelya 2015 (Materials of the IX All-Russia Scientific Conference on Actual Problems of Ecology and Preservation of Biodiversity of Russia and Adjacent Countries, Vladikavkaz, April 27–30 2015), Vladikavkaz, 2015, pp. 18–21.

  25. 25

    Sukatsheva, I.D., The first record of Dicosmoecinae from the Cenozoic of the Russian Far East with a brief global overview of fossil Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera), Paleontol. Zh., 2017, no. 1, pp. 52–57.

  26. 26

    Sukatsheva, I.D. and Vasilenko, D.V., Caddisflies (Trichoptera) in the limnetic fauna from the Jurassic to Miocene, in Materialy V Vserossiiskogo simpoziuma po amfibioticheskim i vodnym nasekomym (Materials of the V All-Russia Symposium on Amphibiotic and Aquatic Insects), Borok, 2013, pp. 200–206.

  27. 27

    Vshivkova, T.S., Phylogeny of family Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) with emphasis on tribe Limnephilini (subfamily Limnephilinae), PhD Theses, 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Vyalov, O.S., On worm tubes of Pectinariopsis Andrusov, Paleontol. Sbor., 1974, vol. 1, no. 10, pp. 41–52.

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Wichard, W., Overview and Descriptions of Trichoptera in Baltic Amber: Spicipalpia and Integripalpia, Berlin: Mus. Naturkunde, 2013, vol. 230.

    Google Scholar 

Download references


We are grateful to A.P. Rasnitsyn (PIN) for valuable advice, constructive remarks, and consultations during our work on the paper, to I.A. Goncharova (PIN) for the notes on the manuscript, and to Yu.V. Rostovtseva (Moscow University) for discussion and valuable remarks and also for the unpublished results of lithological analysis of studied rocks.

The work is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project nos. 18-04-00322, 18-04-00312) and the Program of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences “Evolution of the Organic World: Role and Impact of Planetary Processes.”

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to V. D. Ivanov or S. I. Melnitsky or D. S. Aristov.

Additional information

The article is dedicated to the memory of famous Russian paleoentomologist O.M. Martynova

Translated by G. Rautian

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sukatsheva, I.D., Ivanov, V.D., Melnitsky, S.I. et al. Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Middle Miocene of the Stavropol Region, Russia. Paleontol. J. 52, 1593–1609 (2018).

Download citation


  • Insecta
  • Trichoptera
  • new taxa
  • Miocene
  • Russia