Paleontological Journal

, Volume 40, Supplement 5, pp S595–S603 | Cite as

The use of fossilized honey for paleoecological reconstruction: A palynological study of archeological material from Georgia

  • E. V. Kvavadze


Palynological analysis of the organic contents of ceramic pots from the Kodiani burial mound, which is dated as 27th-25th centuries B.C., revealed that they contained honey. The samples are extremely rich in excellently preserved pollen grains, including numerous pollen grains of insect-pollinated plants. Such characteristics are typical of palynological assemblages from honey. The palynological assemblages from three pot fragments studied are dominated by pollen grains of Rosaceae; however, they differ from one another in the subdominants. The discovery of several kinds of honey testifies to the presence of well-developed beekeeping in the time of the Early Kurgans. Agriculture, with a significant role of wheat, was also developed in the region of Georgia under study. According to the composition of the palynospectra, the ecological conditions that existed during the epoch studied differ significantly from the present day.

Key words

fossil honey palynological analysis the Bronze Age southern Georgia paleoecology and beekeeping 


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. V. Kvavadze
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of PaleobiologyAcademy of Sciences of GeorgiaTbilisi 8Georgia

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