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Gene pool of Siberian Tatars: Five ways of origin for five subethnic groups

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Abstract

Siberian Tatars form the largest Turkic-speaking ethnic group in Western Siberia. The group has a complex hierarchical system of ethnographically diverse populations. Five subethnic groups of Tobol–Irtysh Siberian Tatars (N = 388 samples) have been analyzed for 50 informative Y-chromosomal SNPs. The subethnic groups have been found to be extremely genetically diverse (F ST = 21%), so the Siberian Tatars form one of the strongly differentiated ethnic gene pools in Siberia and Central Asia. Every method employed in our studies indicates that different subethnic groups formed in different ways. The gene pool of Isker–Tobol Tatars descended from the local Siberian indigenous population and an intense, albeit relatively recent gene influx from Northeastern Europe. The gene pool of Yalutorovsky Tatars is determined by the Western Asian genetic component. The subethnic group of Siberian Bukhar Tatars is the closest to the gene pool of the Western Caucasus population. Ishtyak–Tokuz Tatars have preserved the genetic legacy of Paleo-Siberians, which connects them with populations from Southern, Western, and Central Siberia. The gene pool of the most isolated Zabolotny (Yaskolbinsky) Tatars is closest to Ugric peoples of Western Siberia and Samoyeds of the Northern Urals. Only two out of five Siberian Tatar groups studied show partial genetic similarity to other populations calling themselves Tatars: Isker–Tobol Siberian Tatars are slightly similar to Kazan Tatars, and Yalutorovsky Siberian Tatars, to Crimean Tatars. The approach based on the full sequencing of the Y chromosome reveals only a weak (2%) Central Asian genetic trace in the Siberian Tatar gene pool, dated to 900 years ago. Hence, the Mongolian hypothesis of the origin of Siberian Tatars is not supported in genetic perspective.

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Original Russian Text © A.T. Agdzhoyan, E.V. Balanovska, A.D. Padyukova, D.O. Dolinina, M.A. Kuznetsova, V.V. Zaporozhchenko, R.A. Skhalyakho, S.M. Koshel, M.K. Zhabagin, Y.M. Yusupov, Kh.Kh. Mustafin, M.V. Ulyanova, Z.A. Tychinskih, M.B. Lavryashina, O.P. Balanovsky, 2016, published in Molekulyarnaya Biologiya, 2016, Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 978–991.

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Agdzhoyan, A.T., Balanovska, E.V., Padyukova, A.D. et al. Gene pool of Siberian Tatars: Five ways of origin for five subethnic groups. Mol Biol 50, 860–873 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0026893316060029

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