Effect of a type of Indian classical music (Raag Kirwani) comprised of the sound corresponding to a frequency range of 38–689 Hz, on microbial growth, production of certain important metabolites, and antibiotic susceptibility was investigated. All the bacteria and yeasts used as test organisms were found to register better (3.15–40.37% higher) growth under the influence of music, except Serratia marcescens. Music treatment was also found to affect production of bacterial pigments (prodigiosin and violacein) whose production is normally linked with quorum-sensing in the producing bacteria. All the test organisms exhibited an increased antibiotic susceptibility (increase ranging from 3.81–18.69%) under the influence of music. Chromobacterium violaceum and S. marcescens were found to degrade cephazolin at a faster rate when incubated with music. Membrane permeability of the test organisms seemed to get altered owing to music treatment. Intracellular concentration of cations (calcium and potassium) and protein content of the music treated cultures was also significantly different than the untreated control. The audible sound in form of music employed in this study was able to affect growth, metabolism, and antibiotic susceptibility of prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic microbes.
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Sarvaiya, N., Kothari, V. Effect of audible sound in form of music on microbial growth and production of certain important metabolites. Microbiology 84, 227–235 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0026261715020125
- membrane permeability
- antibiotic susceptibility