Skip to main content

Stratigraphy and Depositional Conditions of the Tithonian(?)–Berriasian Deposits in the Tonas River Region (Central Crimea)


The composition and depositional environments of the Tithonian(?)–Berriasian deposits in the Tonas River basin (Central Crimea) are considered. The paper describes the carbonate rock association represented by various types of limestones, breccias, calcareous clays, and marls. Microfacies types of rocks in thin sections are comparable with the standard microfacies formed on the slopes and foothill of carbonate basins. A fault-controlled distally steepened ramp model has been proposed to interpret this depositional environment. Microfacies types of the calcibreccia lithoclasts confirm the gravitational transport of debris from the inner parts of the ramp, thrombolite reefs included. Sections with similar succession are known in the Swiss Alps.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 7.


  1. Arkad’ev, V.V., Subdivision of the Berriasian rocks into formations in the Crimean Mountains, Vestn. SPbGU, Ser. 7, 2007, no. 2, pp. 27–43.

  2. Arkad’ev, V.V., Bogdanova, T.N., and Lobacheva, S.V., New data on the biostratigraphy of Beriasian deposits in the Tonas River basin, Crimean Mountains, in Melovaya sistema Rossii: problemy stratigrafii i paleogeografii, (Cretaceous System in Russia: Problems of Stratigraphy and Paleogeography), Arkad’ev, V.V. and Prozorovskii, V.A., Eds., St. Petersb., 2005, pp. 111–135.

  3. Arkadiev, V.V., Baraboshkin, E.Yu., Bagaeva, M.I., et al., New data on Berriasian biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and sedimentology in the Belogorsk area (Central Crimea), Stratigr. Geol. Correl., 2015, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 155–191.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Baraboshkin, E.Yu., History of the geological development of Crimea: Precambrian–Early Cretaceous, in Ekologo-resursnyi potentsial Kryma. Istoriya formirovaniya i perspektivy razvitiya (Ecoresource Potential of the Crimea: Evolution and Development Perspectives), Baraboshkin, E.Yu. and Yaseneva, E.V., Eds., St. Petersburg: VVM, 2016, vol. 1, pp. 38–84.

  5. Baraboshkin, E.Yu., Baraboshkin, E.E., Yanin, B.T., et al., Deep-water Tithonian–Berriasian ichnocomplexes in Feodosiya (Crimea), Baraboshkin, E.Yu., Ed., Simferopol: Izd. Dom Chernomorpress, 2016, pp. 45–48.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Baraboshkin, E.Yu., Yanin, B.T., and Baraboshkin, E.E., Development of the ichnofacies model of the distally steepened ramp (Tithonian–Berriasian in the central and eastern Crimea), in Trudy Paleontol. Ob-va, 2019, vol. 2, pp. 13–25.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bogdanova, T.N., Lobacheva, S.V., Prozorovskii, V.A., and Favorskaya, T.A., The Berriasian in eastern Crimea and the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary, in Pogranichnye yarusy yurskoi i melovoi sistem, (Jurassic–Cretaceous Boundary Stages), Menner, V.V., Ed., Moscow: Nauka, 1981, pp. 28–35.

  8. Droser, M.L. and Bottjer, D.J., A semiquantitative field classification of ichnofabric, J. Sedim. Petrol., 1986, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 558–559.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Eberli, G., Carbonate turbidite sequences deposited in rift-basins of the Jurassic Tethys Ocean (eastern Alps, Switzerland), Sedimentology, 1987, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 363–388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Embry, A.F. and Klovan, J.E., A Late Devonian reef traction northeastern Banks Island, NWT, Bull. Canad. Petrol. Geol., 1971, vol. 19, pp. 730–781.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Flügel, E., Microfacies of Carbonate Rocks: Analysis, Interpretation and Application, Berlin: Springer, 2010.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  12. Gorbachik, T.N., Drushchits, V.V., and Yanin, B.T., Peculiarities of the Berriasian and Valanginian basins in the Crimea and population, Vestn. MGU, Ser. Geol., 1970, no. 3, pp. 16–25.

  13. Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G., Schmitz, M.B., et al., Geologic Time Scale 2020, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2020, vol. 2.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Guzhikov, A.Yu., Arkad’ev, V.V., Baraboshkin, E.Yu., et al., New sedimentological, bio-, and magnetostratigraphic data on the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary interval of Eastern Crimea (Feodosiya), Stratigr. Geol. Correl., 2012, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 261–294.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Kabanov, P.B., Micritization of particles as a facies indicator in the shallow-marine carbonate rocks, Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol., 2000, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 39–48.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Knaust, D., Shallow-marine carbonates, in Trace Fossils as Indicators of Sedimentary Environments, Knaust, D. and Bromley, R., Eds., vol. 64 (Developments in Sedimentology), Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2012, pp. 705–750.

  17. Krajewski, M., Facies, microfacies, and development of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous of the Crimean carbonate platform from the Yalta and Ay-Petri massifs (Crimea Mountains, Southern Ukraine), Dissertation Monographs 217, Krakow: Wydawnictwa AGH, 2010.

  18. Leeder, M.R., Sedimentology. Process and Product, London: Allen Unwin, 1982. Translated under the title Sedimentologiya. Protsessy i produkty, Moscow: Mir, 1986.

  19. Leinfelder, R.R., Nose, M., Schmid, D.U., et al., Microbial crusts of the Late Jurassic: composition, paleoecological significance and importance in reef construction, Facies, 1993, vol. 29, pp. 195–230.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Leinfelder, R.R. and Schmid, D.U., Mesozoic reefal thrombolites and other microbolites, in Microbial Sediments, Riding, R.E. and Awramik, S.M., Eds., Berlin: Springer, 2000, pp. 289–294.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Maz’ko, E.O., Baraboshkin, E.Yu., and Koptev, E.V., Microfacies of Tithonian–Berriasian deposits in the Tonas River area (Crimean Mountains), in Tr. Kolsk. Nauchn. Tsentra RAN, 2019, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 170–177.

  22. Mileev, V.S., Baraboshkin, E.Yu., Rozanov, S.B., et al., Tectonics and geodynamic evolution of the Crimean Mountains, Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol., 2009, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 3–22.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Muratov, M.V., Plotnikov, N.A, Chernyak, N.I, et al., Geologiya SSSR (Geology of the Soviet Union), Moscow: Nedra, vol. 8 (Crimea), part 1 (Geological Description), 1969.

  24. Nikishin, A.M., Wannier, M., Alekseev, A.S., et al., Mesozoic to recent geological history of southern Crimea and the Eastern Black Sea region, in Tectonic Evolution of the Eastern Black Sea and Caucasus, Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ., 2015, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 241–264.

  25. Perri, E., Mastandrea, A., Neri, C., and Russo, F.A., A micrite-dominated Norian carbonate platform from Northern Calabria (Southern Italy), Facies, 2003, vol. 49, pp. 101–118.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Piskunov, V.K., Rud’ko, S.V, and Baraboshkin, E.Yu., Structure and formation conditions of Upper Jurassic rocks in the Demerdzhi Plateau area (Crimean Mountains), Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol., 2012, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 7–23.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Rameil, N., Immenhauser, A., Warrlich, G., et al., Morphological patterns of Aptian Lithocodium-Bacinella geobodies: relation to environment and scale, Sedimentology, 2010, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 883–911.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Read, J., Carbonate platforms of passive (extensional) continental margin-types, characteristics and evolution, Tectonophysics, 1982, vol. 81, pp. 195–212.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Rud’ko, S.V., Upper Jurassic rock depositional settings in the Baidar Valley and evolution of the Crimean carbonate platform, Lithol. Miner. Resour., 2018, no. 4, pp. 307–323.

  30. Schlagintweit, F. and Gawlick, H.-J., Mikrobolithe und Mikroinkrustierer aus der Plassen-Formation (Kimmeridgium-Berriasium) der Nördlichen Kalkalpen, in Beiträge zur Geologie des Salzkammerguts. Gmundner Geo-Studien 2, Weidinger, J.T. and Lobitzer, H., Spitzbart, I., Eds., 2003, pp. 107–114.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Smirnov, M.V., Sedimentary cyclicity of Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous deposits in the Tonas River basin (Central Crimea), Vestn. SPbGU, Ser. 7, 1997, no. 2, pp. 96–98.

  32. Tucker, M.E. and Wright, V.P., Carbonate Sedimentology, Oxford: Blackwell Science, 1990.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  33. Uchman, A. and Wetzel, A., Deep-Sea Fans, in Trace Fossils as Indicators of Sedimentary Environments, Knaust, D. and Bromley, R., Eds., vol. 64 (Developments in Sedimentology), Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2012, pp. 705–750.

  34. Walker, R.D., Deep-water sandstone facies and ancient submarine fans: models for exploration for stratigraphic traps, AAPG Bull., 1978, vol. 62, pp. 932–966.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Yudin, V.V., Geologicheskaya Karta i razrezy Gornogo, Predgornogo Kryma. Masshtab 1 : 200 000 (Geological Map and Sections of the Crimean Mountains and Foredeep), Simferopol: Soyuzkarta, 2009

  36. Yudin, V.V., Geodinamika Kryma (Geodynamics of Crimea), Simferopol: DIAIPI, 2011.

Download references


The authors are grateful to anonymous peers for the constructive remarks that promoted a significant refining of our manuscript.


This work was accomplished under the State Task AAAA-A16-116033010096-8 (MGU) and supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 16-05-00207a).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to E. Yu. Baraboshkin, E. O. Mazko or E. V. Koptev.

Additional information

Translated by D. Sakya

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Baraboshkin, E.Y., Mazko, E.O. & Koptev, E.V. Stratigraphy and Depositional Conditions of the Tithonian(?)–Berriasian Deposits in the Tonas River Region (Central Crimea). Lithol Miner Resour 57, 248–263 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Tithonian
  • Berriasian
  • Crimea
  • calciturbidites
  • calcibreccias
  • microfacies
  • sedimentary environments