The Patom Crater was formed around 500 years ago. According to geological survey data, it represents a concentrically zoned debris cone with a diameter of 130–160 m at the base and up to 80 m in the upper ring swell from 10–12 to 35–38 m high. The crater is made up mainly of limestones of the Mariinsk Formation (Pt3) and much rarer blocks of sandstones and schists. The debris cone was formed by one or several explosions. The value of δ18O in the limestones, which composes the debris cone (from 12.7 to 13.8‰), on average, is 6.5‰ lower than that of the unexploded Mariinsk limestone. The strontium and carbon isotope compositions vary in narrow ranges typical of the Upper Riphean carbonate of the Baikal mountain system: δ13C (from 8.4 to 8.8‰) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.707864–0.708777). Shift of the oxygen isotope composition indicates that the limestones interacted with hot waters at temperatures above 100°C and, correspondingly, the Patom Crater was formed as a result of phreatic (steam) explosion either during magma emplacement in the hydrous rocks or in response to faulting and decompression of heated hydrous rocks.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Antipin, V.S. and Fedorov, A.M., The origin of Patom Crater, East Siberia, from geological and geochemical data, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2008, vol. 423, no. 3, pp. 1335–1339.
Antipin, V.S. and Voronin, V.I., The Patom Crater Terrestrial or extraterrestrial?, Nauka Perv. Ruk, 2010, no. 5 (35), pp. 16–25.
Antipin, V.S., Voronin, V.I., and Fedorov, A.M., The Patom Crater in East Siberia, Priroda, 2008, no. 9, pp. 69–75.
Antipin, V.S., Fedorov, A.M., Dril, S.I., and Voronin, V.I., The new data on the origin of the Patom Crater (East Siberia), Dokl. Earth. Sci., 2011à, vol. 440, no. 6, pp. 1391–1395.
Antipin, V.S., Fedorov, A.M., and Voronin, V.I., The Patom Crater in East Siberia (Composition, age, and formation conditions), in Patomskii krater. Nauchnye issledovaniya v XXI veke (The Patom Crater Scientific Studies in the 21st Century), Irkutsk, 2011b, pp. 30–41.
Antipin, V.S., Fedorov, A.M., Pokrovskii, B.G., and Dril, S.I., Geological and isotope-geochemical criteria of the endogenic nature of the Patom Crater in the northern Irkutsk district, in Geologiya i mineral’no-syr’evye resursy Severo-Vostoka Rossii (Geology and Raw Mineral Resources of Northeast Russia), Yakutsk, 2013, vol. 1, pp. 42–46.
Bujakaite, M.I., Lavrushin, V.Yu., Pokrovskii, B.G., et al., Strontium and oxygen isotopic systems in waters of mud volcanoes of the Taman Peninsula (Russia), Lithol. Miner. Resour., 2014, no. 1, pp. 47–54.
Chen-Feng, You, Gieskes, J.M., Typhoon Lee, et al. Geochemistry of mud volcano fluids in the Taiwan accretionary prism, Appl. Geochem., 2004, vol. 19, pp. 695–707.
Chumakov, N.M., Pokrovskii, B.G., and Melezhik, V.A., Geological history of the Late Precambrian Patom Supergroup (Central Siberia), Dokl. Earth Sci., 2007, vol. 413, no. 3, pp. 343–346.
Chumakov, N.M., Semikhatov, M.A., and Sergeev, V.N., Vendian reference section of southern Middle Siberia, Stratigr. Geol. Correlation, 2013, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 359–382.
Dählmann, A. and de Lange, G.J., Fluid-sediment interactions at eastern Mediterranean mud volcanoes: a stable isotope study from ODP Leg 160, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2003, vol. 212, pp. 377–391.
Dubinina, E.O., Chugaev, A.V., Ikonnikova, T.A., et al., Sources and fluid regime of quartz–carbonate veins at the Sukhoi Log gold deposit, Baikal–Patom Highland, Petrology, 2014, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 329–358.
Geologicheskii slovar (Geological Dictionary), Moscow: Gosgeoltekhizdat, 1960, vol. 1.
Gladkochub, D.P., Shevelev, A.V., Semenov, D.V., and Alekseev, V.R., The Patom phenomen: Review of hypotheses and a new model of the origin of this object (preliminary results of 2011 expedition), in Patomskii krater. Nauchnye issledovaniya v XXI veke (The Patom Crater: Scientific Studies in the 21st Century), Irkutsk, 2011, pp. 106–110.
Golovenok, V.K., Anomalously high contents of Sr in the Riphean oncolite sandstones of the Patom Highland, Litol. Polezn. Iskop., 1985, no. 1, pp. 122–127.
Halverson, G.P., Wade, B.P., Hurtgen, M.T., and Barovich, K.M., Neoproterozoic chemostratigphy, Precambrian Res., 2010, vol. 182, pp. 337–350.
Isaev, V.P., Isaev, P.V., and Razvozzhaeva, E.A., The Patom gaseous-lithoclastic volcano, Geol. Nefti Gaza, 2012, no. 3, pp. 71–77.
Kholodov, V.N., Mud volcanoes. Distribution regularities and genesis: Communication 2. Geological–geochemical peculiarities and formation model, Lithol. Miner. Resour., 2002, no. 4, pp. 293–309.
Kolpakov, V.V., The mysterious crater in the Patom Highland, Priroda, 1951, no. 2, pp. 58–61.
Maleev, E.F., Vulkanogennye oblomochnye gornye porody (Volcaniclastic Rocks), Moscow Nedra, 1977.
Masaitis, V.L., The Permian trap volcanism in Siberia: Problem of dynamic reconstructions, Zap. Vseross. Mineral. O-va, 1983, part 112, no. 4, pp. 412–425.
Melezhik, V.A., Pokrovsky, B.G., Fallick, A.E., et al., Constraints on 87Sr/86Sr of Late Ediacaran seawater: insight from Siberian high-Sr limestones, J. Geol. Soc., 2009, vol. 166, pp. 183–191.
Obruchev, S.V., Comment to paper of V.V. Kolpakov The mysterious crater in the Patom Highland, Priroda, 1951, no. 1–2, pp. 58–61.
Offman, P.E., Tectonics and volcanic pipes in the Central Siberian Platform, in Tektonika SSSR (Tectonics of the Soviet Union), Moscow: AN SSSR, 1959, vol. 4, pp. 5–344.
O’Neil, J.R., Clayton, R.N., and Mayeda, T.K., Oxygen isotope fractionation in divalent metal carbonates, J. Chem. Phys., 1969, vol. 51, pp. 5547–5558.
Pokrovskii, B.G. and Bujakaite, M.I., Geochemistry of C, O, and Sr isotopes in the Neoproterozoic carbonates from the southwestern Patom paleobasin, southern Middle Siberia, Lithol. Miner. Resour., 2015, no. 2, pp. 144–169.
Pokrovskii, B.G. and Kudryavtsev, D.I., The role of phreatomagmatic processes in the formation of volcanic pipes in the Podkamennaya Tunguska River region based on the oxygen isotopic composition, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2001, vol. 378, no. 1, pp. 388–391.
Pokrovskii, B.G., Melezhik, V.A., and Bujakaite, M.I., Carbon, oxygen, strontium, and sulfur isotopic compositions in Late Precambrian rocks of the Patom Complex, Central Siberia Communication 1. Results, isotope stratigraphy, and dating problems, Lithol. Miner. Resour., 2006a, no. 5, pp. 459–474.
Pokrovskii, B.G., Melezhik, V.A., and Bujakaite, M.I., Carbon, oxygen, strontium, and sulfur isotopic compositions in Late Precambrian rocks of the Patom Complex, Central Siberia Communication 2. Nature of carbonates with ultralow and ultrahigh 13C values, 2006b, no. 6, pp. 576–588.
Portnov, A.M., About crater on the Patom Highland, Meteoritika, 1964, no. 25, pp. 194–195.
Portnov, A.M., The Patom Crater Trace of the Tungus phenomenon?, Zemlya Vselen., 1993, no. 1, pp. 77–81.
Savichev, A.A., Geology, mineral composition, and cryolithozone of the Patom Crater area: Key to solution of the phenomenon, in Patomskii krater. Nauchnye issledovaniya v XXI veke (The Patom Crater: Scientific Studies in the 21st Century), Irkutsk, 2011, pp. 86–103.
Savichev, A.A., Geology, geochemistry, and genesis of the Patom Crater (East Siberia), in Sovremennye problemy geokhimii (Modern Problems in Geochemistry), Irkutsk, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 237–240.
Taran, Yu.A., Pokrovskii, B.G., and Glavatskikh, S.F., Conditions of the hydrothermal transformation of rocks in the Mutnov hydrothermal system (Kamchatka) based on isotope data, Geokhimiya, 1987, no. 11, pp. 1569–1579.
Taylor, H.P., Jr., Water/rock interaction and origin of H2O in granitic batholith, J. Geol. Soc. London, 1977, vol. 133, pp. 509–558.
Turekian, K.K. and Wedepohl, K.N., Distribution of the elements in some major units of the Earth’s crust, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 1961, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 175–192.
Original Russian Text © V.S. Antipin, B.G. Pokrovsky, A.M. Fedorov, 2015, published in Litologiya i Poleznye Iskopaemye, 2015, No. 6, pp. 538–548.
About this article
Cite this article
Antipin, V.S., Pokrovsky, B.G. & Fedorov, A.M. Formation of the Patom Crater by phreatic explosion: Geological and isotope-geochemical evidence. Lithol Miner Resour 50, 478–487 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0024490215060024
- Carbon Isotope Composition
- 86Sr Ratio
- Terrigenous Rock