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Evolutionary Origins of Transventricular Transmission of Hypothalamic Hormones and Neuromodulatory Substances

  • M. G. BelekhovaEmail author
  • N. B. Kenigfest
  • E. V. Chernigovskaya
  • N. M. Chmykhova
Morphological Basics for Evolution of Functions
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Abstract

Liquor-contacting cells, immunoreactive to oxytocin, vasopressin, monoamines (dopamine, serotonin) and calbindin, were found in hypothalamic neurosecretory nuclei of turtles (Testudo horsfieldi and Emys orbicularis). They are considered as sources of the nonsynaptic transventricular pathway responsible for the delivery of a broad variety of hormones and neuromodulators to different hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain structures. This phylogenetically ancient tract is inherent to all vertebrates, including humans, and contributes to the organization of different forms of social behavior.

Keywords

transventricular hypothalamic transmission hormones monoamines turtles evolution 

Abbreviations

CB

calbindin

Ep

ependymal layer

ir

immunoreactive

MRI

n. medialis re-cessus infundibuli

NPP

n. preopticus periven-tricularis

Ox

oxytocin

pEp

periependymal layer

PVN

n. paraventricularis

Se

serotonin

sEp

subependymal layer

sEpe

external sEp

sEpi

internal sEp

TH

tyrosine-hydroxylase

trHh

tractus hypothalamo-hypophisalis

V

third ventricle

Vp

vasopressin

5-HT

5-hy-droxytryptamine.

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Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are grateful to Prof. V.V. Grinevich (Heidelberg University, Germany) for his helpful consultation and providing antibodies, as well as to Dr. D.V. Amakhin (Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, RAS, Laboratory of Molecular Mechanisms of Neuron-Neuron Interactions) for his aid in photographing the preparations.

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. G. Belekhova
    • 1
    Email author
  • N. B. Kenigfest
    • 1
  • E. V. Chernigovskaya
    • 1
  • N. M. Chmykhova
    • 1
  1. 1.Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and BiochemistryRussian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia

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