Advertisement

Levels of organization of living systems: Cooperons

  • V. F. Levchenko
  • V. A. Kotolupov
Problem Papers
  • 57 Downloads

Abstract

All creatures living on Earth are traditionally discussed in the context of structuralmorphological approach, in frame of which there are considered various systems (for instance, organisms and ecosystems) that have different sizes and organization and use different resources for their existence. These characteristics are sometimes added by some particular functional and ecological characteristics, but usually with respect to the structural ones. We believe that such traditional approach, although illustrating, but distracts from the circumstance that any living systems is to be considered an integrated structural-functional complex, the maintenance of existence of this system being impossible without the processes occurring constantly in it and aimed at preserving this complex. This leads us to the concept of cooperons—the self-preserved dynamic structures existing only as a result of various specifically organized cooperative processes (their intensities can vary depending on circumstances). From our point of view, all living systems are cooperons of different hierarchy levels. Some other systems, specifically the symbiotic ones, also are cooperons. In frame of this concept, it is possible to discuss functioning of living systems of different types of organization in a new context closer to physiologists, both for the case of “norm” and for the situation when the cooperative interrelations of parts of the system are impaired (for instance, in systemic diseases).

Key words

organism regularities of functioning cooperative systems 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Brehm, A.E., General Assay of Animal Kingdom, Zhizn’ zhivotnykh (Life of Animals), vol. 1, Moscow, 1992.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bauer, E., Teoreticheskaya biologiya (Theoretical Biology), St. Petersburg, 2002.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shredinger, E., Chto takoe zhizn’? Stochki zreniya fizika (What Is the Life? From the Physicist’s Point of View), Moscow, 1972.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rutten, M., Proiskhozhdenie zhizni (Origin of Life), Moscow, 1973.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shklovskii, I.S., Vselennaya, zhizn’, rasum (Universe, Life, Intellect), Moscow, 1976.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Platonov, G.V., Zhizn’, nasledstvennost’, izmenchivost’ (Life, Heredity, Variability), Moscow, 1978.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Volkenshtein, M.V., Fizika i biologiya (Physics and Biology), Moscow, 1980.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Volkenshtein, M.V., Biofizika (Biophysics), Moscow, 1981.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Frolov, I.T., Zhizn’ i poznanie (Life and Cognition), Moscow, 1981.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Folsom, K., Proiskhozhdenie zhizni (Origin of Life), Moscow, 1982.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Levchenko, V.F. and Starobogatov, Ya.I., Two Aspects of Life Evolution: Physical and Biological, (Fizika: problemy, istoriya, lyudi (Physics: Problems, History, People), Leningrad, 1986, pp. 102–142.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moiseev, N.N., Algoritmy razvitiya (Algorithms of Development), Moscow, Nauka, 1987.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Levchenko, V.F., Physical Model of Evolution of Biosystems, Zh. Obshch. Biol., 1984, vol. 45, pp. 158–163.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rautian, A.S., Paleontology as the Source of Information of Regularities and Factors of Evolution, Sovremennaya paleontologiya (Contemporary Paleontology), Moscow, 1988, vol. 2, pp. 76–118.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ptitsyna, I.B. and Muzalevskii, Yu.S., Determination of the Term “Life” in Frames of Biology. Introduction to New Edition: Bauer, E., Teoreticheskaya biologiya (Theoretical Biology), St. Petersburg, 2002, pp. 50–77.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Levchenko, V.F., Modeli v teorii biologichesloi evolyutsii (Models in the Theory of Biological Evolution), St. Petersburg, 1993.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Levchenko, V.F., Evolyutsiya biosfery do i posle proiskhozhdeniya cheloveka (Evolution of Biosphere before and after Human Origin), St. Petersburg, 2004.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rosen, R., Anticipatory Systems: Philosophical, Ma thematical, and Methodological Foundations, N.Y., 1985.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rosen, R., Life Itself. Comprehensive Inquiry into the Nature, Origin, Fabrication of Life, N.Y., 1991.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Levchenko, V.F., The Seed of Life, Intern. J. Comp. Anticipatory Systems (Belgium), 2001, vol. 13, pp. 62–76.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Levchenko, V.F. and Starobogatov, Ya.I., Physicoecological Approach to Analysis of Biosphere Evolution, Evolyutsionnaya biologiya: istoriya i teoriya (Evolutionary Biology: History and Theory), St. Petersburg, 1999, pp. 37–46.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ugolev, A.M., Estestvennye tekhnologii biologcheskikh sistem (Natural Technologies of Biological Systems), Leningrad, 1987.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ugolev, A.M., Concept of Universal Functional Blocks and Further Development of Theory on Biosphere, Ecosystems, and Biological Adaptations, Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol., 1990, vol. 26, pp. 441–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kapra, F., Pautina zhizni. Novoe nauchnoe ponimanie zhivykh sistem (Web of Life. New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems), Kiev, Moscow, 2002.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Poit, A., Osnovy immunologii (Grounds of Immunology), Moscow, 1991.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Polenov, A.L., Evolution of Hypotalamic-Pituitary Neuroendocrine Complex, Evolyutsionnaya fiziologiya (Evolutionary Physiology), part 2, Leningrad, 1983, pp. 53–109.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Leibson, L.G., Origin and Evolution of Endocrine System, Evolyutsionnaya fiziologiya (Evolutionary Physiology), part 2, Leningrad, 1983, pp. 3–52.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Eigen, M., Samoorganizatsiya materii i evolyutsiya biologicheskikh makromolekul (Self-Organization of the Matter and Evolution of Biological Macromolecules), Moscow, 1973.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sartr, G.P., Existentialism—This Is Humanism, Toshnota, Izbrannye proizvedeniya (Vomiting. Selected Works), Moscow, 1994.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Natochin, Yu.V., Some Principles of Evolution of Functions at the Cell, Organ, and Organism Levels (by the Example of Kidney and Water-Salt Homeostasis), Zh. Obshch. Biol., 1988, vol. 49, pp. 291–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kotolupov, V.A. and Levchenko, V.F., “Zone Model” of Homeostasis Description, Zh. Evol. Bio khim. Fiziol., 2009, vol. 45, pp. 244–250.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kotolupov, V.A. and Levchenko, V.F., Multifunctionality and Homeostasis. Regularities of Organism Functioning Important for Maintenance of Homeostasis, Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol., 2009, vol. 45, pp. 91–99.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Desnitskii, A.G., Mechanisms and Evolutionary Aspects of Ontogenesis of the Volvox Genus (Chlorophyta, Volvocales), Bot. Zh., 1991, vol. 76, pp. 657–668.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dolnik, V.R., Neposlushnoe ditya prirody. Besedy o cheloveke v kompanii ptitz i zverei (Naughty Child of Biosphere. Talks on Human in Company of Birds and Animals), Moscow, 1994.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Savost’yanov, G.A., Osnovy strukturnoi gistologii. Prostranstvennaya organizatsiya epiteliev (Grounds of Structural Histology. Spatial Organization of Epithelia), St. Petersburg, 2005.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Levchenko, V.F. and Starobogatov, Ya.I., Succession Changes and Evolution of Ecosystems (Some Questions of Evolutionary Ecology), Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol., 1990, vol. 51, pp. 619–631.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Harrison, G., Wainer, G., Tenner, G., Barnikot, N., and Reynolds, V., Biologiya cheloveka (monografia) (Human Biology (Monograph)), Moscow, 1979.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Slavinskii, D.A., Regularities of the Crisis Stages of Development by Example of Dynamics of the Structural-Functional Changes, Candidate Sci. Dissertation, St. Petersburg, 2006.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Levchenko, V.F. and Khartsiev, V.E., “The Life Demon” and Auto-Regulation of Evolutionary Process, Intern. J. Comp. Anticipat. Systems (Belgium), 2000, vol. 10, pp. 31–44.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Krichevskii, S.V., Aerokosmicheskaya deyatel’nost’ (The Aerospace Activity), Moscow, 2007.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Oleskin, A.V., Biopolitika. Politicheskii potentsial sovremennoi biologii: filosofskie, politologicheskie i prakticheskie aspekty (Biopolitics. Political Potential of Contemporary Biology: Philosophic, Politological, and Practical Aspects), Moscow, 2001.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Levchenko, V.F., Evolutionary Ecology and Evolutionary Physiology—What Is Common, Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol., 1990, vol. 26, pp. 455–461.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ginetsinskii, A.G., Ob evolyutsii funktsii i funktsional’noi evolyutsii (On Evolution of Functions and Functional Evolution), Moscow, Leningrad, 1961.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kreps, E.M., On Evolutionary Physiology, Evolyutsionnaya fiziologiya (Evolutionary Physiology), part 1, Leningrad, 1979, pp. 3–11.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Natochin, Yu.V., Functional Evolution: Origins and Problems, Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol., 1987, vol. 23, pp. 372–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Orbeli, L.A., Main Tasks and Methods of Evolutionary Physiology, Evolyutsionnaya fiziologiya (Evolutionary Physiology), part 1, Leningrad, 1979, pp. 12–23.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Severtsov, A.N., Glavnoe napravlenie evolyutsionnogo protsessa. Morfobiologicheskaya teoriya evolyutsii (Main Direction of Evolutionary Process. Morphobiological Theory of Evolution), Moscow, 1967.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Severtsov, A.S., Napravlennost’ evolyutsii (Direction of Evolution), Moscow, 1990.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zussman, M., Biologiya razvitiya (Biology of Development), Moscow, 1977.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Menchutkin, V.V., Natochin, Yu.V., and Chernigov skaya, T.V., Common Features of Evolution of the Functional Homeostatic and Informational Systems, Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol., 1992, pp. 623–636.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Berg, L.S., Trudy po teorii evolyutsii 1922–1930 (posmertno), Works on Evolution Theory, 1922–1930 (postmortem), Leningrad, 1977.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lyubischev, A.A., Problemy formy, sistematiki, i evolyutsii organizmov (Problems of the Organisms Form, Systematics, and Evolution), Moscow, 1982.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shmalgausen, I.I., Puti i zakonomernosti evolyutsionnogo protsessa (Ways and Regularities of Evolutionary Process), Moscow, 1982.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lima de Faria, Evolyutsiya bez otbora (Evolution without Selection), Moscow, 1991.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Alimov, A.F., Levchenko, V.F., and Starobogatov, Ya.I., Biodiversity, Its Protection and Monitoring, Monitoring bioraznoobraziya (Monitoring of Biodiversity), Moscow, 1997, pp. 16–24.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Darwin, Ch., Proiskhozhdenie vidov (Origin of Species), St. Petersburg, 1991.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Khlebovich, V.V., Levels of Homeostasis, Priroda, 2007, no. 2.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kotolupov, V.A. and Yakovenko, L.V., General Rules of Functioning of Living Systems: Systematic Approach in Biology and Medicine (in Russian and English), 5th International Aerocosmic Congress IAC-06, August 27–31, 2006. Works Collection, Moscow, 2006, pp. 543–546. In English: General Rules of Living Systems Functioning; System Approach in Biology and Medicine, pp. 358–360.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. F. Levchenko
    • 1
  • V. A. Kotolupov
    • 2
  1. 1.Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and BiochemistryRussian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Center of Systemic MedicineVipavaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations